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When Water Destroys — or Disappears

When Water Destroys — or Disappears

This is one in a series of stories; visit The Daily Meal Special Report: Water for more.

Droughts and floods are major events, wreaking havoc on everyone — and everything — they come across. And while we usually hear only about the human toll that these "acts of God" take, there’s always collateral damage to local agricultural systems.

Droughts and Floods Throughout History: A Timeline

In the United States alone, agriculture contributes at least $200 billion to the economy annually, according to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the slightest change in what’s produced can have serious effects. Floods and droughts have an immediate impact on crops and livestock alike. If there’s no precipitation for a long period of time, crops wither and die. Droughts also reduce the amount of space where livestock can graze, and the associated heat waves can cause heat stress in livestock, resulting in deaths, disease, fertility reduction, and a decrease in milk production. Floods can wipe out entire farms, even entire agricultural regions — for example, in 2008, the Mississippi River flooded right before harvest, with a loss to farmers in portions of Wisconsin, Iowa, Illinois, and Missouri of an estimated $8 billion worth of crops — and aside from the drowning of livestock during floods, the aftermath can create a breeding ground for deadly mold, parasites, and pathogens.

According to the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), more than 80 percent of the nation’s water goes toward agriculture, and in 2015, the department designated 761 U.S. counties as disaster areas. In California alone, which is in the middle of the worst drought on record, crops have withered up and more than $2.7 billion has been lost from the California agriculture economy. The U.S. Drought Monitor shows that wide swaths of the country are in an extreme or exceptional drought at this very moment. Thankfully, farmers are beginning to take action; in Sonoma County, for example, recycled water is now used in agricultural production, irrigating thousands of extra acres of farmland, and new technologies are constantly being developed to help address agricultural water needs.

These new technologies may help fend off long-term damage from drought for the time being, but they don’t solve the problem of increasing global temperatures, and they don’t address the issue on a worldwide level. Droughts and floods are always going to be a major agricultural concern, and they’ve affected agriculture for as long as humans have been planting crops. Read on to learn about some of the worst droughts and floods in history.


How can potassium disappear after cooking?

How do cooking, storage, or processing affect potassium?

Potassium losses from cooking of high-potassium foods can be significant. In the case of spinach for example, potassium levels have been shown to drop from 6.9 to 3.0 grams in 3 and 1/2 ounces of spinach after blanching for several minutes (a loss of about 56%).

I don't understand this. How can potassium disappear after cooking ?


6 Drinks That Can Help You Get Rid of Belly Fat

Highlights

Weight Loss Diet: To gain pounds around the belly is easy but to lose them can be a nightmare and even more challenging than what you think. Therefore, it is important to know and understand that losing belly fat is a gradual process that requires the right combination of workout and diet. It cannot be achieved overnight, but it is certainly possible to shed all that belly fat that is making you doubt yourself with the simplest of lifestyle changes. Of course, a well-balanced diet and fiber rich foods are what you need, but you must not forget the importance of some beverages that can boost your metabolism, fight belly fat and help you attain your weight loss goals. These drinks do not work as some kind of magic potion that would shed all your kilos in a matter of days, but when combined with right diet they could actually yield you fruitful results. 1. Green TeaOn the top of the list is green tea which is packed with antioxidants known as catechins that are believed to fight the stubborn belly fat. A lot of studies have shown that drinking green tea regularly helps in shrinking your belly. Catechins increase the release of fat from fat cells in the belly and also speed up the liver's fat burning ability.

Green tea which is packed with antioxidants known as catechins. Photo Credit: Istock2. Honey-Cinnamon WaterCinnamon increases your metabolic rate which hastens the process of weight loss. It also helps to metabolize sugar which turns into fat and usually accumulates around the belly if not used up correctly by the body. Mix about 1 teaspoon of cinnamon with warm water and honey and drink it every morning.

Cinnamon increases your metabolic rate. Photo Credit: Istock 3. Apple Cider Vinegar with Warm WaterIt is often suggested to start your day with apple cider vinegar for smooth digestion throughout the day. Apple cider vinegar acts a great bile stimulant and keeps the pH levels in the stomach balanced which can help you achieve a flat tummy. Apple cider vinegar is known to increase satiety and supress your appetite. You should have a teaspoon of apple cider vinegar with warm water every morning on an empty stomach.

Apple cider vinegar is known to increase satiety. Photo Credit: istock4. Pineapple JuicePineapple juice is believed to be a great remedy for belly fat. An important enzyme called bromelain which is found in the juice of pineapple helps in metabolizing protein and burns away excess stomach fat.

Pineapple juice is believed to be a great remedy for belly fat. ​Photo Credit: Istock5. Peppermint TeaPeppermint helps in the digesting your food quickly and properly which prevents the accumulation of fat. It helps in relieving bloating which may cause fat accumulation in the abdomen region due to your food not being digested properly. Peppermint particularly helps in processing the fat in your stomach.

Peppermint helps in the digesting your food quickly.6. Celery JuiceJust like peppermint tea, celery juice also helps in relieving bloating which can lead to belly fat. It acts as a natural dieuretic and thus, prevents water retention by helping your body get rid of the excess water (another cause of belly fat and bloating). Add some ginger root to your juice for a pungent kick and also for its fat burning properties. Ginger is warm in nature and sets the thermogenesis process where the body burns calories to utilize it.

Celery juice also helps in relieving bloating. Photo Credit: IstockWhile all of these drinks really help in supporting your system, the cheapest fat burner is perhaps water. Drinking water helps in the elimination of unwanted toxins and keeps your appetite in check. Your body tends to confuse thirst with hunger sometimes and so, it is extremely important to keep yourself hydrated at all times.


When Water Destroys — or Disappears - Recipes

After accidentally using hot water instead of warm water during the autolyse period of Preston Yancey's white bread, I was surprised to learn that intentionally scalding the flour is a technique used in Japan for super-soft bread.

I wanted to learn more. Why does scalding the flour lead to soft bread?

In this post, I will answer the following questions:

1. What is an autolyse?
2. Why would you add boiling hot water? Why can't you do this for regular bread recipes?
3. What is starch gelatinization?
4. What is tangzhong?
5. How can I use scalded flour in my bread baking?

1. First off, what is an autolyse? It's a technique used by some bakers to boost the gluten formation in their bread. By mixing water and flour before adding any other ingredients, you allow the protein to absorb all the water without having to share it with the starch and without being stressed by the carbon dioxide bubbles from the yeast pushing against the gluten net before it's had a chance to firm up. After an autolyse of just a few minutes, the gluten is very well formed and is ready to stretch with the expansion of yeast bubbles. Salt and yeast are added after the autolyse period is completed.

2. What makes scalded bread different from the autolyse? Why would you add boiling hot water to flour? With an autolyse, you add warm water. This is because protein can absorb more warm water than cold water. The autolyse is purely to develop the gluten.

Scalding flour with boiling water, in contrast, activates another chemical reaction entirely-- starch gelatinization. Instead of being absorbed by the protein, the hot water is absorbed into the starch molecules. That leaves the gliadin and glutenin (the proteins in flour responsible for creating gluten) bereft of the water they need for strong gluten formation.

Bread with high gluten formation tastes chewy. This is why you don't want to overmix doughs like muffins and cakes- they can become rubbery. By taking water away from the gluten and jump-starting starch gelatinization instead, you create a dough that is super soft.

Why can't you do this for regular bread recipes? Simply put, you cannot substitute hot water for the usual warm water because it kills the yeast. That is why it really only works when you add hot water to the flour and let it cool before adding the yeast and salt.

3. What is starch gelatinization? As you may recall from my The Science Behind. series on the baking process, starch gelatinization occurs in the high heat of the oven. This graphic might clarify things:

Here is what happens when dough is in the oven. First, the yeast go crazy and produce lots of bubbles before the heat is too high and they die off.

Next, the gluten strands release water to solidify around the carbon dioxide bubbles created by the yeast.

With all the free water suddenly available (released by the gluten), the starches absorb it until they can't absorb any more they then burst, releasing the water and sugars in a process called gelatinization.

So instead of waiting for starch gelatinization to occur in the oven, scalded flour introduces it much sooner in the bread baking process.

But what exactly IS it? This article explains it best:

Here's a graphic. As you can see, the starch molecules absorb water under heat until they burst, forming a tight net of gel.

https://scienceandfooducla.wordpress.com/2013/04/30/baking-without-eggs/

Here is the problem, one that I ran into and one that has been solved by the Japanese technique of tangzhong (more on that below): you don't want to scald the entire flour content of your dough.

You do still want some gluten in your dough to help with structure. This is where tangzhong comes in. It can be understood as something of a roux. Like a roux you might use in a gumbo, adding just a little bit of scalded flour will help soften your dough, while maintaining the gluten structure.

4. What is tangzhong? Tangzhong is a technique I learned about recently. According to this post,

A Tangzhong Roux (also called a Tangzhong Water Roux or Water Roux) is a flour and water roux that is added to yeast bread recipes. This is done in order to make a loaf of bread that is lighter, has a more tender crumb and a longer shelf life.

The flour and water are mixed and heated to 149-F (65C). This gelatinizes the flour and forms an unflavored translucent pudding-like roux.

http://yireservation.com/recipes/soft-asian-milk-bread/

If you plan to use a water roux in a regular recipe such as my 2-3 white bread, use only about 5% of the total flour weight to calculate your roux flour weight. The flour in a water roux absorbs 5x the flour weight in water.

So if you are planning on making a dough with 375g of flour, your roux should be about 19g of roux flour (375 * .05) and 95g of roux water (19 * 5). The post on Chowhound suggests just adding it to your recipe without doing any recalculations for hydration.

Just add your paste to the amount of water you would regularly use (in the case of my 2-3 dough, 250g of water) and then, when it is lukewarm, adding it to the normal 375g of flour.

5. How can I use scalded flour in my bread? Besides the Japanese soft breads, I learned that scalded flour is a technique practiced in Scandinavia as well. Virtuous Bread has some tips for using scalded flour (in sources below). I learned through my research that scalded flour is most often used in non-wheat doughs like ryes, which have very little gluten content and do not hold their structure well. By scalding the flour, bakers can achieve a soft dough that has a cake-like consistency, less bitter flavor, and holds together without the help of gluten.

For a rye bread recipe with scalded flour, check out this post: rye bread with scalded flour.

I hope you enjoyed this tutorial on scalded flour and starch gelatinization. It's something I was unfamiliar with, but I'm thinking it could be a great way to add softness to breads without fats like eggs or milk.

Have you ever used scalded flour or a water roux in baking? Let me know in the comments!


Recipes

This page is considered outdated but has been left untouched because many people put a lot of effort into it. Please do not take it too seriously. There are only so many useful combinations of elements and most of the ones on this page do not add anything to the game.

Focus on engineering with the basic materials, not chemistry.

Recipes are combinations for use in Mix Mode. Listed here will be these combinations, listed by their base.

To make experimenting with recipes easier there is the Recipe Helper application for Windows. Using the Recipe Helper is recommended, as if you do not know what you are doing when editing this page you can quite easily wreck the layout/formatting!

To add a new recipe, use the <> template. The first parameter is the Recipe code , the second is the material properties. For example:

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      How to make lemon water

      If it sounds like it&rsquos super intuitive, that&rsquos because it is. But here&rsquos how to make the absolute best lemon water possible to fully reap all the health benefits.

      Step 1: Juice your lemon

      Grab a fresh lemon with a little give to it. (Roll it against the cutting board if you need to break it down a bit.)

      Avoid lemons that are too hard, because they&rsquore probably not ripe enough to release all the healthy juices. Psst: Steer clear of those lemon juice containers from the grocery store since they&rsquore usually loaded with preservatives and other additives.

      Cut the lemon in half and squeeze the entire thing into a bowl so you can pluck the seeds out when you&rsquore done. (Or use a lemon squeezer.) Pour the juice into a 16-ounce water bottle.


      Is Flat Tummy Water for Me?

      Many people wonder when they start drinking flavored water for weight loss what they can expect from it. The weight loss you can expect to see from these detox infusions will happen gradually and you should be patient. Also, consuming flat tummy water drinks will be most effective for you when used in conjunction with a healthy exercise program, reducing calorie intake and maintaining a healthy diet.

      There are also other factors like genetic makeup, stress, and nutritional intake that can all have a bearing on weight loss or weight gain.

      Whatever the case, increasing your fluid intake with these healthy flavored water drinks will boost your health in general and you may see that you start to lose extra weight gradually.


      Bayocean: the American city that disappeared because man ignored nature

      E very western ghost town is an object lesson. Oregon, with more ghost towns than any other state, has a full curriculum. In the places that emptied out when the railways lost out to highways, we can see how capital and technology, then as now, destroy homes and livelihoods as relentlessly as they build them. In the towns that fell apart when their mine tapped out, we can see that manic boom-and-bust extraction cycles have convulsed the west for its entire history.

      But there’s one lost Oregon town that gives us a tightly focused image of the future. There are no remains of Bayocean for the visitor to see – they’ve long since been claimed by the waters of Tillamook Bay. Though the wild weather of the Oregon coast administered the coup de grace to the town in the 1950s, in truth, the residents themselves destroyed it by misunderstanding and carelessly tampering with the natural systems that allowed it to exist.

      Real estate developers are the American west’s true legislators. In 1906, at the dawn of the era of mass leisure, TB Potter saw the four-mile long spit off the coast of Tillamook and decided that he could make it into “the Atlantic City of the west”.

      With his son, TI Potter, he bought up the land for a song, and started transforming it into a holiday destination that would draw people from Oregon and the whole of the west coast.

      Bayocean: gone. Photograph: Tillamook County Pioneer Museum

      The main thrust of the plan was selling plots to people who would use them for holiday homes. But he also planned and built a hotel, a dance hall and a heated swimming pool complete with a machine for making artificial surf. The swimming pool, or “natatorium”, was down by the ocean so that people could choose between it and the more bracing Oregonian surf.

      He built it, and for a while they came. The first lots were bought by Francis Drake Mitchell, Bayocean’s most enduring true believer, who set up a pharmacy and retail store there. Six hundred more sold to buyers softened up with free travel and boarding, but never quickly enough to keep up with Potter’s voracious needs for cash flow as he tried to keep up the pace of development for what was becoming the largest city on the Oregon coast.

      Over the first decade, the haphazard facilities showed the strain of building the place from scratch. The telephone system only connected to other numbers in Bayocean, not the outside world. The badly designed water pumping system yielded only a trickle in some parts of the island. There were concrete roads, but few cars, as there was as yet no road connection from the mainland.

      The only means of transport for visitors to get to Bayocean was Potter’s yacht, also called Bayocean, which sailed back and forth from Portland once a week. This trip was occasionally terrifying: passengers had to cross the infamously treacherous Columbia river bar and the mouth of Tillamook Bay, which was also frightening in rough weather.

      The residents demanded a protective jetty to smooth this journey. The US army corps of engineers took one look at the bay and said they’d need two. The residents, who had to put up half the cost, would have to shell out over a million dollars, so they settled for one (this still cost each resident $450 – a huge sum in 1917).

      An artist’s rendering of Bayocean. Photograph: Tillamook County Pioneer Museum

      This is the way they ended up paying for the destruction of their own property, and the city. The jetty changed the current, which began steadily wearing away the sand on which the whole town rested. The Potter family got out in the early 1920s, as the resort became mired in legal troubles. As early as 1928, when the road was finally built, the seaward side of the spit had been significantly eroded. It didn’t stop.

      Every bit of rough weather now posed an existential threat to Bayocean. In 1932, a massive storm destroyed the natatorium. By 1938, 59 homes had disappeared, and residents had long since begun fleeing in earnest.

      A few held on, like old Francis Mitchell, the first resident, whose stubbornness is still a local legend. In the early 1950s he was still trying to rebuild the spit with a shovel and a wheelbarrow.

      In 1952, the spit became an island, when heavy seas smashed through the barrier, altering the ecological balance of the bay and the estuary that fed into it. In 1953, the post office closed and all residents were evacuated. In 1960, the last house fell into the ocean.

      Erosion has claimed houses on the coast of the Pacific Northwest since then, and the conditions that bring this about are worsening. Professor Scott Burns from Portland State University says: “Global warming will produce more El Niño events.” For the Oregon Coast, and the north-west in general, that means more storms. Combined with rising seas, that means trouble for beachfront settlements.

      Burns is one of those urging local authorities to locate all essential services 50ft or higher above the water. They also need to stand up to developers who want to build too close to a coast that will be subject to more erosion than ever.

      If we hubristically ignore the natural systems we live, in “we will likely see more Bayoceans in the future”.


      If you’ve ever wondered if cooking with protein powder destroys or denatures it, is safe, or have needed another reason to make protein cheesecake more apart of your life then you’ve come to the right place! By the end of this article you’ll (hopefully) have the simplified answers to all of these questions!

      The question I get asked the most is that if heating up the protein powder destroys it. Whether baking, microwaving, or sunbathing with it, leaving it in a hot car, or anything else short of lighting it on fire…the short answer is (drum roll) NO!

      Now you might be asking “why?”, so let me do my best to simplify this answer. To understand why you must first understand what protein powder is. Whatever type of protein powder you use whether it’s whey, casein, egg, soy, and so on, it’s all going to be the same thing. For example, whey protein comes from the by-product of the cheese making process, egg protein is made from pasteurized egg whites that have been dehydrated, soy protein is a protein that is isolated from soybean, and the list goes on. So what is this same thing? They are all REAL digestible food. I think some people quickly forget this! It’s a supplement so they think that it’s some type of magical food that’s not real, which isn’t the case at all. Protein powder is real food just like chicken that we bake, meals we microwave, and jerky or dehydrated foods we leave in the car. Heating up protein powder does not destroy it at all.

      Another popular question I get asked a lot is if cooking with protein powder denatures it at all. This one is a bit more complicated so before I give you the answer I’ll do my best to help you understand it. First off, denaturing here is basically the changing of the protein structure which YOUR BODY DOES ANYWAYS. Imagine your protein as a rope with various knots in it and the knots are your amino acids Those knots becoming untied means they are becoming denatured. If the protein powder was a rubix cube and you “denatured” it then you would essentially be rearranging the colors. In this case, cooking protein powder DOES denature it, the structure changes when the protein powder is heated. Is this bad? No, not at all! The same thing happens to meat, eggs, soybeans, and so on. Even though the structure has changed, the nutritional value remains the same. If your protein powder is 129 calories per serving with 1 gram of fat, 5 grams of carbs, and 25 grams of protein then it’s going to be exactly that even after cooking it. The only factor that’s going to change is sometimes digestion. When protein powder is mixed with water it’s going to digest much faster than when baked with something like rolled oats that take much longer to digest but at the end of the day you’re not losing ANY nutritional value. Imagine denaturing is a slinky of amino acids and it becomes untangled. You can still eat the slinky (don’t actually eat a slinky!) and you’re still going to absorb it all.

      So is cooking with protein powder safe? Now that you hopefully understand the simplified answers to if cooking with protein powder destroys or denatures it I think we can be certain that cooking with protein powder is 100% safe. If you can bake meats or cook eggs on the stovetop, you can without question cook protein powder.

      To sum everything up…cooking with protein powder doesn’t destroy it, it does denature it, and it is 100% safe! So go bake some protein bars, cheesecake, cookies, make some protein oatmeal, or anything else your sweet tooth desires.


      Pan-frying, roasting, and searing do not involve water. Although the food may still lose some vitamins, it is typically less than you would lose with a method that uses water. These methods can also enhance the flavor of your food, depending upon which one you choose. For example, roasting vegetables tend to give them a sweeter taste while softening their skins. Stir-frying retains more of the crispness and imparts a flavor that more closely resembles what you enjoy from eating raw vegetables.

      For recipes that require the use of water, you can try using a method that reduces the contact that the water has with the ingredients.

      For instance, blanching requires the food to sit in the water for less time, and this method is ideal for softening ingredients such as bell peppers. Steaming allows the heated water to gradually soften the produce without removing all of the Vitamin C. Microwaving, while not seen as particularly sophisticated, can also help to retain the Vitamin C content in vegetables.

      Overall, it’s probably best not to rely on cooked vegetables to meet your Vitamin C intake needs, as most kitchens are not equipped with the necessary equipment to measure Vitamin C content. Since time, water, and heat all contribute to the destruction of Vitamin C, you cannot depend on the nutrition labels that only indicate the vitamin content of the food in its raw form. If you are concerned that you are not getting adequate Vitamin C from foods, consider Lypo-Spheric ® Vitamin C supplements. They are resistant to digestive juices that destroy Vitamin C before it reaches the bloodstream. Just don’t heat them as heat destroys not only Vitamin C in this case, but liposomes as well.


      Watch the video: Mother Nature Angry Caught On Camera - Amazing Monster Flash Flood Compilation P7 (December 2021).