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America’s First Certified Green Restaurant Hotel Chain

America’s First Certified Green Restaurant Hotel Chain


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InterContinental Hotels & Resorts is the first U.S hotel chain to get all its 26 restaurants 'Certified Green'

Michael Jordan’s Chicago Steakhouse is raising the bar in the environmental category by providing electric vehicle charging stations for green-minded diners.

The InterContinental Hotels & Resorts brand has been named the nation’s first Certified Green restaurant hotel chain by the Green Restaurant Association (GRA). The hotel chain, based in the U.S. and Canada, has made sure all of its corporately managed restaurants have become Certified Green Restaurants.

The company began the process in 2011, when the InterContinental Boston hotel’s Miel Brasserie Provençale was the first restaurant to receive the certification. Today, it has 26 restaurants certified throughout its properties. The GRA has certified each restaurant by evaluating environmental categories including energy, water, waste, food, packaging, chemicals, and building materials.

"The sheer positive environmental impact of the InterContinental Hotels and Resorts becoming Certified Green Restaurants is huge in terms of the energy saved, water conserved, safer chemicals used, waste diverted, sustainable food consumed, and green packaging employed," said Michael Oshman, founder and CEO of the Green Restaurant Association. "IHG Hotels is making an equally large environmental impact by succeeding in becoming the first hotel chain to achieve this goal, and sending a message to the marketplace of how feasible this is."

In the InterContinental’s San Francisco location, Luce restaurant reached the three-star Certified Green Restaurant level due to its renewal energy initiatives and its superefficient spray valves that use less than 1 gallon per minute.

Additionally, Michael Jordan’s Chicago Steakhouse is raising the bar in the environmental category due to chemical and pollution reduction by providing electric vehicle charging stations for green-minded diners.


Our menu reflects our deep dedication to sustainability.

Our albacore is caught using 60-foot long lines from day boats that go about 50-100 miles off the coast of the Pacific Northwest. The boat tows lures called “jigs” from fishing lines attached to outriggers, that are extended on the sides of the boat. With a crew of about six people, fisherman pull in the albacore hand-over-hand, one at a time directly from the line to process right on the boat. Albacore is one of our fish that is also “Frozen-at-Sea” – a practice of blast freezing fresh fish immediately after it’s caught, at such a low temperature that ice crystals don’t have a chance to form. This stops and breakdown of the fish, while preserving a flavor that is fresher than most fish that is brought back to land to be processed while fresh.

Foraged Seaweeds

Foraging is one of the more environmentally friendly ways to harvest food with a low carbon footprint and, when done correctly, a lightweight impact on the ecosystem. We work with Terry from Ocean Harvest Sea Vegetable Company to source seaweeds from the Mendocino coast in California. These grow naturally in the rich waters of the Pacific, and are foraged from tidal pools within the rocky coast – a perfect environment for these nutrient rich sea vegetables to thrive. Terry’s harvesting methods ensure continued growth of the seaweeds while maintaining the surrounding ecosystem. Harvested at every new and full moon, the seaweeds are rinsed in the salty ocean water, then taken to the nearby Redwood forests to be dried in the natural forest air. Each front is laid our and turned every hour. The result? A sustainable product, filled with flavor, available on all Bamboo Sushi menus

Hawaiian Kanpachi

Blue Ocean Mariculture is one of our most exciting aquaculture partners. Their sustainably raised Hawaiian Kanpachi has set a new standard for the seafood industry. They employ a variety of sustainable farming practices to reduce their impact on the surrounding ocean and wildlife. They use specially designed open water net pens which are engineered to eliminate the risk of unintentional wildlife entanglement, or “bycatch”. And because these fish are raised from hatch to harvest, there is no pressure on wild fish populations. The Hawaiian Kanpachi, a member of the Amberjack family, has a high protein conversion ration (weight of fish divided by its foot intake), making it an efficient and sustainable species to raise. As we grow, we see to support sustainable aquaculture operations across North America.

Our Rice

Montna Farms supplies the non-GMO Japanese short grain rice used across our menu. Every year after harvest, the fields of this California farmland are flooded even further, as part of their BirdReturns Program, providing critical habitat to a wide array of birds. Species like the Long-billed Curlew use the land as sanctuary to rest and feed along their migratory path from Canada to Mexico.


THE BLUE COOKBOOK

Chef, author and co-founder of the seafood brand Fish Tales.
One of the world’s most passionate sustainable fishing advocates, Bart is a chef, author and the co-founder of the seafood brand Fish Tales.

Chef, author and co-founder of the seafood brand Fish Tales.
One of the world’s most passionate sustainable fishing advocates, Bart is a chef, author and the co-founder of the seafood brand Fish Tales.

Head chef, restaurateur and mentor, Hanko Sushi and ToQyo Food Street.
Having worked with sushi for over 10 years now, Jesper has developed a sense of patience as well as appreciation for details and accuracy. He has sought inspiration for making sushi the Nordic way from around the world and especially Japan.ਏish ninja, food explorer and in his own words also a poor sailor – Jesper brings sustainability with him wherever he goes. Hanko Sushi’s 25 restaurants were MSC certified in 2019 and only serve sustainable MSC & ASC certified seafood.

Head chef, restaurateur and mentor, Hanko Sushi and ToQyo Food Street.
Having worked with sushi for over 10 years now, Jesper has developed a sense of patience as well as appreciation for details and accuracy. He has sought inspiration for making sushi the Nordic way from around the world and especially Japan.ਏish ninja, food explorer and in his own words also a poor sailor – Jesper brings sustainability with him wherever he goes. Hanko Sushi’s 25 restaurants were MSC certified in 2019 and only serve sustainable MSC & ASC certified seafood.

Director of culinary operations, Singapore and South East Asia at Hyatt Hotels Corporation An Australian national with over 35 years of culinary experience, Lucas’ experience has seen him work in world-class kitchens around the world. An advocate for preserving the planet for future generations, when Lucas became਍irector of Culinary Operationsਊt Grand Hyatt Singapore in 2010 he immediately initiated a review of the hotel’s food sources as part of Hyatt’s food philosophy “Thoughtfully Sourced, Carefully Served”. His hard work was recognised by Aquaculture Stewardship Council (ASC) and Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) when the hotel was awarded the Chain of Custody certification by both bodies in 2015.

Director of culinary operations, Singapore and South East Asia at Hyatt Hotels Corporation An Australian national with over 35 years of culinary experience, Lucas’ experience has seen him work in world-class kitchens around the world. An advocate for preserving the planet for future generations, when Lucas became਍irector of Culinary Operationsਊt Grand Hyatt Singapore in 2010 he immediately initiated a review of the hotel’s food sources as part of Hyatt’s food philosophy “Thoughtfully Sourced, Carefully Served”. His hard work was recognised by Aquaculture Stewardship Council (ASC) and Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) when the hotel was awarded the Chain of Custody certification by both bodies in 2015.

Multi-award-winning Food NetworkCelebrity਌hef, Culinary Director of The Siba਌o. 
Chef Siba is a culinary extraordinaire, food expert, author, entrepreneur! The first global South African celebrity chef best known for her cooking show, Siba&aposs Table on The Food Network and Cooking Channel which airs in over 135 countries across the globe. She is theਏounder and culinary director of The Siba਌o, a Food Solutions and Innovation Company. She is an anti-hunger activist and lends her voice to all matters relating to food security and sustainability. 

Multi-award-winning Food NetworkCelebrity਌hef, Culinary Director of The Siba਌o. 
Chef Siba is a culinary extraordinaire, food expert, author, entrepreneur! The first global South African celebrity chef best known for her cooking show, Siba&aposs Table on The Food Network and Cooking Channel which airs in over 135 countries across the globe. She is theਏounder and culinary director of The Siba਌o, a Food Solutions and Innovation Company. She is an anti-hunger activist and lends her voice to all matters relating to food security and sustainability. 

Executive Chef from  Kerry Hotel Pudong, Shangai,  under Shangri-La Hotel & Resort Group Limited Chef Otto has accumulated over 27 years of culinary experience by working at prestigious establishments. Born and raised in Malaysia, he has a great knowledge of culinary culture and infusesਏlavoursਏrom his global background into his creations. His outstanding talent and dedication have won him numerous press and award recognitions.

Executive Chef from  Kerry Hotel Pudong, Shangai,  under Shangri-La Hotel & Resort Group Limited Chef Otto has accumulated over 27 years of culinary experience by working at prestigious establishments. Born and raised in Malaysia, he has a great knowledge of culinary culture and infusesਏlavoursਏrom his global background into his creations. His outstanding talent and dedication have won him numerous press and award recognitions.

Tv chef and author of cookbooks Easy Iceland and Easy Nordic.
Dagny Ros Asmundsdottir is an Icelandic cook and TV personality. She is also author of the cookbooks Easy Iceland and Easy Nordic and Roots, her latest cookbook.

Tv chef and author of cookbooks Easy Iceland and Easy Nordic.
Dagny Ros Asmundsdottir is an Icelandic cook and TV personality. She is also author of the cookbooks Easy Iceland and Easy Nordic and Roots, her latest cookbook.

Award-winning chef and culinary director.
Frida Ronge is an award-winning Swedish chef and the culinary director for Tak and Unn restaurants in Stockholm, which serve a large proportion of seafood. 

Award-winning chef and culinary director.
Frida Ronge is an award-winning Swedish chef and the culinary director for Tak and Unn restaurants in Stockholm, which serve a large proportion of seafood. 

Award-winning seafood restaurateur, seafood ambassador and writer.
Mitch Tonks is a highly acclaimed and award-winning seafood restaurateur, food writer and supporter of sustainable fishing and the industry, and a long-standing MSC UK ambassador.

Award-winning seafood restaurateur, seafood ambassador and writer.
Mitch Tonks is a highly acclaimed and award-winning seafood restaurateur, food writer and supporter of sustainable fishing and the industry, and a long-standing MSC UK ambassador.

Chef, restaurateur, and former contestant on Top Chef Spain.
Rebeca Hernández is a chef and owner of La Berenjena restaurant in Madrid, and a former Top Chef Spain contestant.

Chef, restaurateur, and former contestant on Top Chef Spain.
Rebeca Hernández is a chef and owner of La Berenjena restaurant in Madrid, and a former Top Chef Spain contestant.

Chef, culinary director and co-founder of the Scout Canning seafood brand.
Chef Charlotte Langley hails from Prince Edward Island, Canada where she cultivated a ‘Maritime Chic’ style of cooking and a deep love for the oceans. Charlotte has over 15 years of practice as a chef & culinarian, and in that time has forged a reputation for herself as a creative multi-tasker utterly dedicated to the art and craft of cooking. Charlotte takes her cues from the ingredients- fresh, local, seasonal and delicious. She handles them with respect and reverence, priding herself on her relationships with fishers, farmers and artisans.

Chef, culinary director and co-founder of the Scout Canning seafood brand.
Chef Charlotte Langley hails from Prince Edward Island, Canada where she cultivated a ‘Maritime Chic’ style of cooking and a deep love for the oceans. Charlotte has over 15 years of practice as a chef & culinarian, and in that time has forged a reputation for herself as a creative multi-tasker utterly dedicated to the art and craft of cooking. Charlotte takes her cues from the ingredients- fresh, local, seasonal and delicious. She handles them with respect and reverence, priding herself on her relationships with fishers, farmers and artisans.

Chef, author and co-founder of the seafood brand Fish Tales.
One of the world’s most passionate sustainable fishing advocates, Bart is a chef, author and the co-founder of the seafood brand Fish Tales.

Chef, author and co-founder of the seafood brand Fish Tales.
One of the world’s most passionate sustainable fishing advocates, Bart is a chef, author and the co-founder of the seafood brand Fish Tales.

Head chef, restaurateur and mentor, Hanko Sushi and ToQyo Food Street.
Having worked with sushi for over 10 years now, Jesper has developed a sense of patience as well as appreciation for details and accuracy. He has sought inspiration for making sushi the Nordic way from around the world and especially Japan.ਏish ninja, food explorer and in his own words also a poor sailor – Jesper brings sustainability with him wherever he goes. Hanko Sushi’s 25 restaurants were MSC certified in 2019 and only serve sustainable MSC & ASC certified seafood.

Head chef, restaurateur and mentor, Hanko Sushi and ToQyo Food Street.
Having worked with sushi for over 10 years now, Jesper has developed a sense of patience as well as appreciation for details and accuracy. He has sought inspiration for making sushi the Nordic way from around the world and especially Japan.ਏish ninja, food explorer and in his own words also a poor sailor – Jesper brings sustainability with him wherever he goes. Hanko Sushi’s 25 restaurants were MSC certified in 2019 and only serve sustainable MSC & ASC certified seafood.

Director of culinary operations, Singapore and South East Asia at Hyatt Hotels Corporation An Australian national with over 35 years of culinary experience, Lucas’ experience has seen him work in world-class kitchens around the world. An advocate for preserving the planet for future generations, when Lucas became਍irector of Culinary Operationsਊt Grand Hyatt Singapore in 2010 he immediately initiated a review of the hotel’s food sources as part of Hyatt’s food philosophy “Thoughtfully Sourced, Carefully Served”. His hard work was recognised by Aquaculture Stewardship Council (ASC) and Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) when the hotel was awarded the Chain of Custody certification by both bodies in 2015.

Director of culinary operations, Singapore and South East Asia at Hyatt Hotels Corporation An Australian national with over 35 years of culinary experience, Lucas’ experience has seen him work in world-class kitchens around the world. An advocate for preserving the planet for future generations, when Lucas became਍irector of Culinary Operationsਊt Grand Hyatt Singapore in 2010 he immediately initiated a review of the hotel’s food sources as part of Hyatt’s food philosophy “Thoughtfully Sourced, Carefully Served”. His hard work was recognised by Aquaculture Stewardship Council (ASC) and Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) when the hotel was awarded the Chain of Custody certification by both bodies in 2015.

Multi-award-winning Food NetworkCelebrity਌hef, Culinary Director of The Siba਌o. 
Chef Siba is a culinary extraordinaire, food expert, author, entrepreneur! The first global South African celebrity chef best known for her cooking show, Siba&aposs Table on The Food Network and Cooking Channel which airs in over 135 countries across the globe. She is theਏounder and culinary director of The Siba਌o, a Food Solutions and Innovation Company. She is an anti-hunger activist and lends her voice to all matters relating to food security and sustainability. 

Multi-award-winning Food NetworkCelebrity਌hef, Culinary Director of The Siba਌o. 
Chef Siba is a culinary extraordinaire, food expert, author, entrepreneur! The first global South African celebrity chef best known for her cooking show, Siba&aposs Table on The Food Network and Cooking Channel which airs in over 135 countries across the globe. She is theਏounder and culinary director of The Siba਌o, a Food Solutions and Innovation Company. She is an anti-hunger activist and lends her voice to all matters relating to food security and sustainability. 

Executive Chef from  Kerry Hotel Pudong, Shangai,  under Shangri-La Hotel & Resort Group Limited Chef Otto has accumulated over 27 years of culinary experience by working at prestigious establishments. Born and raised in Malaysia, he has a great knowledge of culinary culture and infusesਏlavoursਏrom his global background into his creations. His outstanding talent and dedication have won him numerous press and award recognitions.

Executive Chef from  Kerry Hotel Pudong, Shangai,  under Shangri-La Hotel & Resort Group Limited Chef Otto has accumulated over 27 years of culinary experience by working at prestigious establishments. Born and raised in Malaysia, he has a great knowledge of culinary culture and infusesਏlavoursਏrom his global background into his creations. His outstanding talent and dedication have won him numerous press and award recognitions.

Tv chef and author of cookbooks Easy Iceland and Easy Nordic.
Dagny Ros Asmundsdottir is an Icelandic cook and TV personality. She is also author of the cookbooks Easy Iceland and Easy Nordic and Roots, her latest cookbook.

Tv chef and author of cookbooks Easy Iceland and Easy Nordic.
Dagny Ros Asmundsdottir is an Icelandic cook and TV personality. She is also author of the cookbooks Easy Iceland and Easy Nordic and Roots, her latest cookbook.

Award-winning chef and culinary director.
Frida Ronge is an award-winning Swedish chef and the culinary director for Tak and Unn restaurants in Stockholm, which serve a large proportion of seafood. 

Award-winning chef and culinary director.
Frida Ronge is an award-winning Swedish chef and the culinary director for Tak and Unn restaurants in Stockholm, which serve a large proportion of seafood. 

Award-winning seafood restaurateur, seafood ambassador and writer.
Mitch Tonks is a highly acclaimed and award-winning seafood restaurateur, food writer and supporter of sustainable fishing and the industry, and a long-standing MSC UK ambassador.

Award-winning seafood restaurateur, seafood ambassador and writer.
Mitch Tonks is a highly acclaimed and award-winning seafood restaurateur, food writer and supporter of sustainable fishing and the industry, and a long-standing MSC UK ambassador.

Chef, restaurateur, and former contestant on Top Chef Spain.
Rebeca Hernández is a chef and owner of La Berenjena restaurant in Madrid, and a former Top Chef Spain contestant.

Chef, restaurateur, and former contestant on Top Chef Spain.
Rebeca Hernández is a chef and owner of La Berenjena restaurant in Madrid, and a former Top Chef Spain contestant.

Chef, culinary director and co-founder of the Scout Canning seafood brand.
Chef Charlotte Langley hails from Prince Edward Island, Canada where she cultivated a ‘Maritime Chic’ style of cooking and a deep love for the oceans. Charlotte has over 15 years of practice as a chef & culinarian, and in that time has forged a reputation for herself as a creative multi-tasker utterly dedicated to the art and craft of cooking. Charlotte takes her cues from the ingredients- fresh, local, seasonal and delicious. She handles them with respect and reverence, priding herself on her relationships with fishers, farmers and artisans.

Chef, culinary director and co-founder of the Scout Canning seafood brand.
Chef Charlotte Langley hails from Prince Edward Island, Canada where she cultivated a ‘Maritime Chic’ style of cooking and a deep love for the oceans. Charlotte has over 15 years of practice as a chef & culinarian, and in that time has forged a reputation for herself as a creative multi-tasker utterly dedicated to the art and craft of cooking. Charlotte takes her cues from the ingredients- fresh, local, seasonal and delicious. She handles them with respect and reverence, priding herself on her relationships with fishers, farmers and artisans.


Recipes on the Rail: La Fonda Pudding, a delicious treat from a famous Harvey House

BNSF&rsquos predecessors and their passenger rail dining services each had their own set of signature menus and dishes, depending on their geographical routes. Our series Recipes on the Rail takes you back to the glory days of train travel and provides you with delicious recipes for your enjoyment.

In the late 19th Century and first half of the 20th Century, weary rail passengers traveling through the American Southwest needed dining options and places to spend the night. Those needs were met by Fred Harvey and his welcoming Harvey House restaurants and hotels.

Harvey immigrated to the United States from England in 1850 when he was just 15. With his entrepreneurial spirit, he managed to open a café in St. Louis by the time he was 22. When that business partnership fell through, he got a job as a freight agent at the Hannibal & St. Joseph Railroad, which would later become part of BNSF predecessor Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad (CB&Q). As an agent, Harvey traveled the Midwest during the week and stayed home with his family in Kansas on weekends.

During his travels, Harvey noticed how poor dining accommodations were for travelers when trains stopped to refill the engine&rsquos water tanks. A businessman and restaurateur at heart, he approached his superiors about opening lunchrooms and dining halls along the route. They dismissed the idea, but it was suggested that he try the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway (ATSF). In 1867, he met with Charles Morse, the superintendent of ATSF, and the two struck a deal setting up restaurants called Harvey Houses along the ATSF route.

Harvey Houses aimed to provide passengers with comfort and luxury at a moderate price. Male wait staff were prone to fighting, so he hired women. Newspaper ads were placed to recruit young, attractive women "of good character" to be waitresses and provide hospitality to the passengers. The women, who were famously known as Harvey Girls, received free meals and housing while earning $17.50 per month. At a time when career paths for young women were scarce, being a Harvey Girl offered the allure of adventure and a sense of stability.

The restaurants operated like well-oiled machines. To accommodate large numbers of travelers in a short amount of time, a system was created between the Harvey Houses and incoming passenger trains.

First, as the train hurtled toward the station before a meal stop, a member of the train crew would walk through the railcars asking passengers if they would be dining or not. The crew member then wired ahead of the stop to let the restaurant know how many meals to prepare. Waitresses would begin preparing for the onslaught of visitors by setting plates and cups at tables in accordance with the count. By the time the travelers entered the doors, hot meals were already being placed on tables.

When Fred Harvey died in 1901, there were more than 45 Harvey House restaurants. Even after Harvey&rsquos passing, his legacy lived on as ATSF continued to open new Harvey Houses. His grandchildren continued serving guests through 1968, when the decline in passenger rail slowed business.

One of the Harvey Houses was the La Fonda Hotel in Santa Fe, New Mexico, a historic hotel that is still in operation. The hotel was purchased in 1925 by the ATSF and served as a Harvey House restaurant until 1969. The dining room even served a dessert named after the hotel, the La Fonda Pudding.

As summer heats up, we encourage you to try the famous La Fonda Pudding for your next backyard barbecue!

La Fonda Pudding

Adapted from Dining by Rail by James D. Porterfield

  • 1 cup finely crushed graham crackers (12)
  • 3 egg yolks, well beaten
  • 1 cup sugar
  • 1/8 tsp. salt
  • ½ cup chopped walnuts
  • ½ tsp. vanilla extract
  • 1 tsp. baking powder
  • 3 egg whites, stiffly beaten

For topping:

Preheat oven to 350 degrees.

Crush graham crackers fine using a rolling pin and set aside for later use. Butter bottom and sides of an 8&rdquo x 8&rdquo baking pan and set aside. Separate egg yolks from whites. In medium mixing bowl, beat egg yolks until thickened and of a lemon color. Continue beating constantly as you gradually add the sugar. Into the yolk/sugar mixture, fold the graham cracker crumbs, salt, chopped walnuts, vanilla and baking powder. Beat egg whites until light peaks form, then fold into mixture. Pour mixture into baking pan and bake for 45 minutes, until inserted knife comes out clean. Remove baking pan to wire rack and let cool for 10 minutes. Remove from pan and cut into 2-inch squares. Serve topped with whipped cream and a sprinkle of chopped walnuts.


Great Bites in the Bluegrass State: What to Eat in Kentucky

Get lucky in Kentucky with these iconic state foods and the best places to try each.

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Photo By: Sarah Jane Sanders

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Bourbon and Beyond

From the eastern Appalachian mountains west to the Mississippi River bottoms, Kentuckians stand united around tables loaded with aged country ham, tender spoonbread (please pass the butter), and handmade sorghum syrup. Oh, and a little local bourbon, maybe before. Maybe after. Ready to join the deliciousness? For everyday, try beloved soupbeans and cornbread and their variations: nationally acclaimed burritos and tacos. Pair with an Ale-8-One, munch a Modjeska for dessert, and share Kentucky's commonwealth.

Illustration by Hello Neighbor Designs

Hot Brown

In 1926 Chef Fred Schmidt at Louisville’s Brown Hotel created a savory, creamy, hot, open-faced turkey sandwich intended to recharge the energies of the hotel’s nightly dinner-dance patrons. Schmidt layered sliced turkey on toast, covered it with Mornay sauce, tucked in some Roma tomato halves and toast points, ran the dish under a hot broiler and added crisp bacon slices as the topper. The Hot Brown, still available daily at the Brown Hotel, has its own webpage, which includes the original recipe. It remains popular enough in restaurants across the commonwealth that it has spawned its own best-of competitions.

Bourbon

Kentucky gave birth to bourbon, and Kentucky distillers still make 95 percent of the world’s bourbon today. Kentucky’s bourbon-friendly natural assets include iron-free limestone water, a good climate and lots of corn, which must make up at least 51 percent of bourbon’s basic ingredients — its “grain bill.” Kentucky bourbon lovers who sip at home often choose time-tested Old Forester, introduced in Louisville in 1870 and distilled legally right on through Prohibition. Among many fine bourbon bars in the commonwealth, Henry Clay’s Public House in Lexington stands out for excellent live music and for its location in a building the bourbon-loving Great Compromiser built in 1805.

Benedictine: La Peche Gourmet-To-Go (Louisville, Kentucky)

Jennie Benedict, born in 1860 in Louisville, invented Benedictine, a spread made of cream cheese, cucumber juice, onion juice and seasonings, mashed together with a fork. Benedictine dip or sandwiches appear on many Louisville tables during Derby week. The original recipe — which is widely available — includes two drops of green food coloring, an ingredient that some cooks and chefs skip today. Louisvillians hungry for their signature spread often stop by La Peche Gourmet-To-Go, attached to Lilly's, for famed chef Kathy Cary’s cucumber-rich, crunchy version. Some also order a Benedictine-and-bacon sandwich to go, as fortification until they get their Benedictine home and can whip one up themselves.

Mint Julep

Bourbon-based mint juleps on Derby Day are a Kentucky ritual, for both natives and visitors, and mint juleps are the official drink at the Churchill Downs racetrack. Kentucky mint juleps start with bourbon and include muddled fresh mint, sugar or simple syrup and crushed ice. The drinks are assembled carefully, even ceremonially. Kentucky statesman Henry Clay held both mint juleps and bourbon in high regard. Craft cocktails at many restaurants include year-round julep variations that hold wide appeal. In Louisville, 610 Magnolia adds rose water and rose petal infusions, for example, and Proof On Main stretches out with a Hot to Trot cocktail that includes cayenne, curacao and a bitter herbal liqueur.

Deviled Eggs

To be popular at a Kentucky potluck, bring deviled eggs, and watch your platter empty before all others. While each Kentucky cook makes deviled eggs to suit family preferences, ranging from purely savory to sweet-tart, Kentuckians are broad-minded and enjoy the full flavor spectrum. Although restaurants rarely feature deviled eggs, Dudley’s Restaurant, founded in Lexington in 1981, offers acclaimed daily deviled egg appetizers, with optional Kentucky smoked trout and fried caper toppings. Some Kentuckians resist the “devil” in deviled eggs, perhaps not trusting the late 18th-century British, who began using the term to describe certain intensely flavored, stimulating foods. While Kentuckians claim deviled (or “dressed” or “stuffed”) eggs as their own, versions of this favorite bite appear on tables around the world, and have since the days of the ancient Romans.

Spoon Bread

Sit down in the tranquil dining room at Berea College’s historic Boone Tavern and the famed restaurant’s hot starter dish arrives: crusty gold spoon bread scooped straight from the baking dish, served with fresh butter. James Beard called spoon bread a “heavy soufflé.” It is cornbread’s fancy cousin: eggy, buttery, tender and moist. While yellow cornmeal reigns in some parts of the country, legendary mid-20th-century Boone Tavern manager and cookbook author Richard T. Hougen required white cornmeal for the tavern’s signature dish. Home cooks can choose from many recipes to add spoon bread to the table for holidays, birthdays and, of course, Derby brunches.

Goetta

Northern Kentuckians cherish crisp-fried slices of goetta (pronounced “GET-uh”) for breakfast, in sandwiches and as part of “hangover cure” plates. Goetta manufacturers mix meat and broth with steel-cut oats and seasonings to make a mush, then shape the mixture into logs or blocks to sell to restaurants and home cooks. Cooks and chefs then slice or crumble it and fry until crisp. The venerable Anchor Grill in Covington — “We may doze but never close” — serves goetta around the clock, 365 days a year, and does not have far to go to buy it. Just across the road, Glier’s Goetta, founded in 1946, makes 1 million pounds of this German-influenced specialty food each year.

Fried Chicken

Even though people around the world love Kentucky’s fast-food chicken for casual meals, it’s the fine-dining restaurants that lift the deep-fried version to its peak. Heirloom Restaurant in Midway offers a memorable, buttermilk-brined chicken breast, serving it over rich mashed potatoes with sawmill gravy and arugula. This restaurant’s fried chicken livers, served with lemon-ricotta ravioli, attract a following so ardent the restaurant cannot replace them on the menu. Kentuckians still pan-fry chicken in cast-iron skillets for special meals at home, often using seasoned flour mix made from Kentucky-grown soft red winter wheat and produced at historic Weisenberger Mill.

Moonshine

Independent Kentuckians have made and sold their own alcohol for at least 200 years, including before, during and after Prohibition. Much of that alcohol could be called moonshine — unaged, high-proof, corn-based, distilled whiskey, often made illegally. Distillers like Casey Jones Distillery in Hopkinsville now produce legal moonshine in the light of day. Master distiller Arlon Casey Jones uses stills built on patterns his grandfather developed in Golden Pond, Kentucky, a town renowned for its Prohibition-era moonshine. Golden Pond ceased to exist when its residents were forced to move in the 1960s to make way for the Land Between the Lakes National Recreation Area.

Burgoo

While trips to Keeneland Race Track in Lexington usually involve betting, another “B” word also beckons locals there: burgoo, a Kentucky staple since at least the mid-1800s. Burgoo has no fixed recipe. Food historian Charles Patteson calls it “a hunter’s stew made from what was available.” Early versions of burgoo included local game, simmered outdoors in large iron kettles. Today, burgoo is a thick, savory dish made with multiple meats and vegetables, spiced to the cook’s taste. At Louisville’s Churchill Downs, Derby-goers find burgoo sustaining on the first Saturday in May. Food journalist Jean Anderson said burgoo is “de rigueur at political rallies, church suppers, and family reunions in Kentucky.”

Shaker Lemon Pie

For nearly 50 years, diners have driven to Shaker Village of Pleasant Hill near Harrodsburg for beauty, history, discovery — and the Shaker Lemon Pie. This double-crusted, intensely tart-sweet pie, filled with faintly bitter, paper-thin slices of whole lemon, makes Kentuckians forget all about the lemon meringue and icebox pies in the world outside. Guests from around the country still come in droves for other Shaker foods as well, and for the rich pleasures of enjoying seed-to-table dining in a lovingly restored setting. Big favorites from the menu include tangy tomato-celery soup, the corn muffins or white yeast rolls that are passed with each main meal, and fried chicken.

Soup Beans and Fried Corn Cakes

Soup beans and cornbread? That’s the epicenter of Kentucky’s Appalachian heritage cooking, enjoyed across the state for the savory, salty goodness of slow-cooked pinto beans seasoned with smoked pork. While bean soups can be based on any dried bean, soup beans are always pintos. The best soup beans and cornbread come from home — ideally from Mamaw’s kitchen — but restaurants across the price spectrum also feature these now-stylish survival foods. Windy Corner Market, a popular country crossroadslocation near Lexington, offers red-pepper-flecked soup beans and fried corn cakes every day, served with raw onion, as they should be. Soup beans and cornbread originated because hard-working farm and mining families needed good food they could afford and cook while managing all the work of self-reliant homesteads. The taste of the foods, the comfort they offer and the sense of connection to tradition and culture moved them into the mainstream, where they bubble along today in frugal families’ meals.

Hoppin’ John

Alfalfa restaurant in Lexington put Hoppin’ John on the menu soon after it opened in 1973, and the dish is still available daily, making generations of Alfalfa fans happy. Alfalfa’s idiosyncratic, vegetarian version of this coastal favorite features brown rice topped with lightly seasoned black-eyed peas, a layer of diced canned tomatoes and a trio of toppings: chopped fresh onions, bell peppers and grated white cheddar cheese. Insiders order the cabbage side salad, invented during the early 1970s lettuce boycott, and ask for Alfalfa’s famous miso dressing on the side.

Bourbon Balls

During the winter holidays and Derby week in early May, home cooks often make bourbon balls with moist centers that include crushed vanilla cookies, somewhat like European rum balls. Several excellent Kentucky artisanal candy companies produce truffle-like versions of these beloved candies: creamy, bourbon-soaked fondant centers dipped in fine chocolate. At 95-year-old Ruth Hunt Candies in Mt. Sterling, staff members top each Woodford Reserve Bourbon Ball with a perfect pecan half. Ruth Hunt also lures thousands of fans with its distinctive Blue Monday candy bar, a chocolate-coated slice of pulled, meltaway vanilla cream candy, honoring a traveling minister who said he needed a little sweet each week to help him through his “Blue Monday.”

Transparent Puddings and Pies

The transparent pies at Magee’s Bakery, founded in Maysville in 1956, have their roots in nearby farm kitchens, where cooks made dessert with what they had: eggs, butter, sugar, cream and a touch of flour. These iconic pies may be first cousins of the better-known chess pies, and second cousins once removed of pecan pies, but fans insist on the distinctiveness of transparent pies: They are made without the cornmeal and flavorings typical of chess pies, and without the nuts so crucial in pecan pies. Aficionados also know that the smaller, personal-sized pies are called “transparent puddings.” Reportedly, George Clooney, Maysville’s best-known native, seeks out and shares the pies with friends and colleagues on his movie sets.

Corn Pudding

Corn pudding, a side dish of baked, corn-filled custard, delights Kentuckians at large family meals, potlucks and holiday dinners. Many Kentucky home cooks depend on a widely shared recipe that stays on the menu at Beaumont Inn in Harrodsburg, handed down through five generations of the owners’ family. The James Beard Foundation declared the Beaumont Inn an American Classic in 2015, honoring nearly 100 years of family ownership and a commitment to iconic Kentucky foods like country ham and fried chicken.

Craft Beer

Bourbon may take top billing when it comes to Kentucky drinking, but the craft beer scene is thriving too. In 2012, Lexington’s West Sixth Brewing began brewing and serving beer in one corner of a historic bakery building called The Bread Box. The craft microbrewery now offers 15 to 20 beers on tap, and the Bread Box brims over with creative, community-minded businesses and nonprofits, including an inventive indoor farm at the heart of the building. Stores and restaurants across Kentucky sell West Sixth’s signature IPA and many other beers. Soon West Sixth beer will include ingredients grown on a newly purchased 120-acre Franklin County farm, 35 minutes from the brewery.

Tacos and Burritos

In a national competition in 2014 aimed at finding America’s best burrito, Lexington’s Tortillería y Taquería Ramírez missed first place by one point. A judge called the tortillas “essentially perfect.” This modest grocery-restaurant attracts hundreds of patrons daily, for both sit-down and carry-out orders. Many are there just for stacks of warm, freshly made corn tortillas: The Ramirez family buys, soaks and grinds Kentucky-grown corn from local Weisenberger Mill as the main ingredient in the tortillas. Journalist and Mexican food authority Gustavo Arrellano documented the Ramirez family’s story in an oral history for Southern Foodways Alliance, beginning with their coming to work on a central Kentucky horse farm and leading to their owning a block of buildings that includes their famous grocery-restaurant.

Doughnuts

Bowman and Zelma Spalding launched Spalding’s Bakery in their north Lexington home in 1929. Their family members still follow the original recipe to make Lexington’s most-famous yeast doughnuts — slightly gnarly, crispy, light, barely glazed, both filling and fulfilling. Other pastries from Spalding’s, particularly apple fritters and filled doughnuts, have their own fan groups. Although plenty of media outlets have affirmed the doughnuts’ wonders, only locals willing to come early, stand in line and carry out — there are no seats — get the full benefits of the bakers’ skills. Once the day’s supply of all the pastries runs out, Spalding’s closes.

Mutton Barbecue

Owensboro, a large river town, serves as Kentucky’s barbecued-mutton epicenter. At least four local restaurants keep mutton on their menus, and frequent church dinners and fundraising events feature this regional specialty of western Kentucky. The Moonlite Bar-B-Q Inn in Owensboro serves a legendary daily buffet showcasing mutton, along with other meats and traditional side dishes like country green beans and broccoli casserole. One distinctive buffet item, banana salad, features sliced bananas rolled in a cooked sweet-tart creamy dressing and topped with crushed peanuts. Bananas have a Kentucky tie because early refrigerated railcars bringing the tropical fruits north from New Orleans to Chicago for national distribution had to stop in Fulton, Kentucky, to replenish their ice supply.

Burger

At Jack Fry’s, the sultry Louisville restaurant that first opened in 1933, diners can order Jack’s Burger for lunch or dinner. Jack Fry’s chefs put Black Hawk Farms Black Angus chuck on a brioche bun and then add lettuce, tomato, caramelized onions and spicy-sweet local pickles. The rest of Jack Fry’s menu soars to fine-dining heights, but the burger never disappoints. The City Pool Hall in Monticello serves up another kind of burger, also a favorite for more than 50 years: a hamburger patty flattened and crisped alongside its bun on a venerable flat-top griddle, all crunch and savor.

Modjeskas

In the late 1800s Anton Busath, a French confectioner living in Louisville, worked for years to perfect a candy he named for a beautiful, dramatic Polish actress, Helena Modjeska. Busath wrapped a premium marshmallow in soft, buttery caramel, creating a tender bite of sweet-on-sweet that enjoys dedicated fans today. Muth’s Candies, founded in 1921, acquired the closely guarded recipe in the late 1940s. Descendants of founder Rudy Muth continue to make and wrap Modjeskas by hand today, coating some with milk or dark chocolate. Muth’s now sells Modjeskas and other confections online as well as in its NuLu store.

Sorghum

Kentuckians revere sweet sorghum syrup, which many call “molasses” or “sorghum molasses,” as a favorite way to close out a meal: They mash sorghum with soft butter and apply the mixture to a biscuit or two. Sorghum is a single-ingredient sweet syrup that farm families can produce from start to finish on their own land. Kentucky cooks use sorghum in soft spicy cookies, baked beans and the apple stack cakes that are part of traditional Appalachian cuisine. Premier Kentucky producers include Townsend Sorghum Mill and Country Rock, both of which hold national sorghum championships, as well as Oberholtzer’s, which does not enter national competition. Starting in late summer, sorghum producers press sorghum cane stalks to release their green juice, then cook that down in special pans to yield sweet, dark amber syrup. For many Kentuckians, cooking sorghum is a fun activity done communally with family and friends.

Skyline Chili

Nicholas Lambrinides, born in Greece, started Skyline Chili in 1949 in Cincinnati, relying on a secret blend of Mediterranean spices. Across the Ohio River, northern Kentuckians have enjoyed their own Skyline locations for decades and claim the flavorful sauce as part of their cuisine. Basic chili, called a “3-way,” comes on a bed of spaghetti, topped with grated cheese. Diners can keep adding toppings, choosing beans or onions or both, to reach a “4-way” or “5-way.” The chain’s signature Coneys are sauce-topped hot dogs, with other toppings optional. There are several Skyline Chili branches in Louisville.

Beer Cheese

Kentuckians began eating beer cheese in the 1940s, when Arizona chef Joe Allman invented a cheese spread with four ingredients: cheese, beer, garlic and cayenne. Joe’s cousin, famed restaurateur Johnny Allman, served it as an appetizer at popular destination restaurants on the Kentucky River near Winchester. Today, Hall’s on the River in Winchester serves a popular beer-cheese appetizer with saltine crackers and crisp vegetables. Hall’s spread won the People’s Choice award at Winchester’s 2016 Beer Cheese Festival. Hall’s Snappy Beer Cheese, a commercial version of the restaurant’s housemade spread, can be ordered online.

Derby Pie

George Kern and his parents, Leaudra and Walter, developed Derby Pie around 1950 in Prospect, Kentucky. They trademarked it as Derby-Pie in the late 1960s. Kentuckians eat Derby Pie year-round, not just in early May. Kern’s Kitchen in Louisville produces the custardy walnut-chocolate dessert from a secret recipe, selling it frozen online and to restaurants and grocery stores in parts of Kentucky, Indiana and Ohio. When Kentucky home cooks and chefs make similar pies — for example, adding chocolate chips to a pecan pie — they sometimes use names like Racetrack Pie to let diners know the pie is similar to Derby-Pie while also avoiding trouble over the fiercely protected trademark.

Flowerpot Bread

Western Kentuckians and people from throughout the state drive to the tiptop of the Land Between the Lakes National Recreation Area to eat at Patti’s 1880’s Settlement. One big reason is Patti’s Flower Pot Bread. With each entree, Patti’s serves a seasoned clay flowerpot overflowing with tender yeast bread freshly baked from scratch. Plain butter and strawberry butter come alongside it. Patti’s and its sibling restaurant, Mr. Bill’s, serve more than 350,000 people annually, in a town with fewer than 400 residents. Take a walk through the gardens or play in the nearby lake, and come back for a slice of mile-high meringue pie.

Ale-8-One

In Winchester in 1926, G. L. Wainscott launched Ale-8-One, a new, gingery, caffeinated soft drink. He promoted it as “A Late One” to spotlight its recent arrival on an active soft drink scene. For decades, fans went to Winchester to buy the drink, carrying supplies to friends and family members far away. Now Ale-8-One is available online and its distribution area includes much of Kentucky, along with some Ohio and Indiana counties. G. L. Wainscott’s great-great-nephew Fielding Rogers heads the company today, and he still relies on the founder’s handwritten notes to stay true to the original recipe.

Fried Catfish

While fried catfish appears on menus in restaurants across Kentucky, it’s held in particularly high esteem by diners in western Kentucky. Willow Pond Southern Catfish in Aurora breads catfish fillets lightly and fries them to a crisp brown, serving them alongside well-praised sides, including hush puppies, vinegar slaw, baked potatoes and white beans. Condiments on each table include a sweet red pepper relish that most diners add to the beans — though it can be a dip for other foods as well. Willow Pond of Aurora opened in 1993, taking over from Sue and Charlie’s, a popular catfish restaurant founded in 1947, and it remains known for its warm, skilled service.

Country Ham

Kentucky country ham, now a revered delicacy, was once simply “ham.” Families raised their own pigs, cured the hams in salt — sometimes with brown sugar added — smoked them a bit if they wished, and then hung them to age in unheated smokehouses for up to two years. Nancy Newsom Mahaffey of Col. Bill Newsom’s Aged Kentucky Country Ham in Princeton says it’s likely her ancestors began curing hams soon after reaching Virginia in 1642. Today, Nancy uses a recipe written into a family will in the late 1700s to produce stellar aged hams that were praised by James Beard. Available to purchase on the company’s site, they’re impressive enough that a Col. Newsom ham is the only American exhibit in a Spanish museum dedicated to jamon.


Timothy Shackton – Head Brewmaster

A native of Clearwater, Tim is a veteran commercial brewmaster, with strong roots in the brewing industry. His great grandfather John was a saloon owner in the thriving downtown Milwaukee area in the early 1900s. Tim's uncle James, an engineer working with Reynolds Aluminum in collaboration with Miller Brewing, developed the cost-saving dimple in the bottom of beer cans. After attending St. Cecelia Parochial School and Dunedin High School, Tim &ndash like his father &ndash joined the Marines. When Tim returned from Desert Storm, he accepted a position with Hops Grill and Brewery as a brewer's apprentice. Under the tutelage of John Schwarzen of Anheuser-Busch fame, Tim learned the art of brewing and led a team that built brewpubs throughout Florida. He and his uncle opened and ran Shackton's Frozen Custard and Burgers in Largo. He also worked at Total Wine and Darden Restaurants.


Food Rationing in Wartime America

World War I
Following nearly three years of intense combat since the onset of World War I, America’s allies in Europe were facing starvation. Farms had either been transformed into battlefields or had been left to languish as agricultural workers were forced into warfare, and disruptions in transportation made the distribution of imported food extremely challenging. On August 10, 1917, shortly after the United States entered the war, the U.S. Food Administration was established to manage the wartime supply, conservation, distribution and transportation of food. Appointed head of the administration by President Woodrow Wilson, future-President Herbert Hoover developed a voluntary program that relied on Americans’ compassion and sense of patriotism to support the larger war effort.

In order to provide U.S. troops and allies with the sustenance required to maintain their strength and vitality, posters urging citizens to reduce their personal consumption of meat, wheat, fats and sugar were plastered throughout communities. Slogans such as 𠇏ood will win the war” compelled people to avoid wasting precious groceries and encouraged them to eat a multitude of fresh fruits and vegetables, which were too difficult to transport overseas. Likewise, promotions such as “Meatless Tuesdays” and “Wheatless Wednesdays” implored Americans to voluntarily modify their eating habits in order to increase shipments to the valiant soldiers defending our freedom.

To help families prepare meals without these former staples, local food boards were established to offer guidance, canning demonstrations and recipes with suitable replacements for the provisions that had become so limited. As a result of these conservation efforts, food shipments to Europe were doubled within a year, while consumption in America was reduced 15 percent between 1918 and 1919. Even after the war had ended, Hoover continued to organize shipments of food to the millions of people starving in central Europe as head of the American Relief Administration, earning him the nickname the “Great Humanitarian.”

World War II
Soon after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and America’s subsequent entrance into World War II, it became apparent that voluntary conservation on the home front was not going to suffice this time around. Restrictions on imported foods, limitations on the transportation of goods due to a shortage of rubber tires, and a diversion of agricultural harvests to soldiers overseas all contributed to the U.S. government’s decision to ration certain essential items. On January 30, 1942, the Emergency Price Control Act granted the Office of Price Administration (OPA) the authority to set price limits and ration food and other commodities in order to discourage hoarding and ensure the equitable distribution of scarce resources. By the spring, Americans were unable to purchase sugar without government-issued food coupons. Vouchers for coffee were introduced in November, and by March of 1943, meat, cheese, fats, canned fish, canned milk and other processed foods were added to the list of rationed provisions.

Every American was entitled to a series of war ration books filled with stamps that could be used to buy restricted items (along with payment), and within weeks of the first issuance, more than 91 percent of the U.S. population had registered to receive them. The OPA allotted a certain amount of points to each food item based on its availability, and customers were allowed to use 48 𠆋lue points’ to buy canned, bottled or dried foods, and 64 ‘red points’ to buy meat, fish and dairy each month—that is, if the items were in stock at the market. Due to changes in the supply and demand of various goods, the OPA periodically adjusted point values, which often further complicated an already complex system that required home cooks to plan well in advance to prepare meals.

Despite the fact that ration books were explicitly intended for the sole use by the named recipient, a barter system developed whereby people traded one type of stamp for another, and black markets began cropping up all over the country in which forged ration stamps or stolen items were illegally resold. By the end of the war, restrictions on processed foods and other goods like gasoline and fuel oil were lifted, but the rationing of sugar remained in effect until 1947.

Want to try out a ration recipe on your own?

APPLE BROWN BETTY

Adapted from the “Sweets Without Sugar” pamphlet distributed by the Federal Food Board of New York in 1918.

Start to finish: Approximately 1 hour
Servings: 10

5 medium apples
1 ¼ cups bread crumbs
4 tablespoons of melted butter or cooking fat
¼ cup hot water
1 ½ tablespoons lemon juice
5 tablespoons dark corn syrup
½ teaspoon salt
½ teaspoon cinnamon

Grease a glass or ceramic baking dish and preheat oven to 350° F.

Pare the apples and cut them into thin slices. Toss the bread crumbs with the melted fat in a small bowl. In a separate bowl, mix the hot water, lemon juice, corn syrup, salt and cinnamon together.

Distribute a third of the bread crumb mixture into the bottom of the greased dish and top with half of the sliced apples and half of the liquid. Repeat with another layer of bread crumbs, apples and liquid and top with the remaining bread crumbs. Bake in the oven for 45 minutes.

FACT CHECK: We strive for accuracy and fairness. But if you see something that doesn't look right, click here to contact us! HISTORY reviews and updates its content regularly to ensure it is complete and accurate.


What Are Green Hotels?

Green Hotels are environmentally-friendly properties whose managers are eager to institute programs that save water, save energy and reduce solid waste—while saving money—to help PROTECT OUR ONE AND ONLY EARTH!

WHO WE ARE: Green Hotels Association®'s purpose is to bring together hotels interested in environmental issues.

From adding "Drinking water served on request only" to the menu to installing new HVAC systems, and with every measure in between, Green Hotels Association® encourages, promotes and supports the greening of the lodging industry.

HOW WE HELP: General managers, chief engineers and executive housekeepers do not have the time to search out all the environmentally-friendly water saving, energy saving and solid waste reducing ideas that apply to the hospitality industry. So, Green Hotels Association® has dedicated itself to that purpose. On joining, members receive the very comprehensive 161-page Guidelines and Ideas packed with great ideas options and techniques revealing how to reduce bills as well as the hotel's impact on your beautiful destination.

For over twenty-five years Green Hotels Association® has been offering TOWEL RACK HANGERs and SHEET CHANGING CARDs which ask guests to consider using their linens more than once. These gentle reminders, now found in thousands of hotel guest bathrooms, can save 5% on utilities* alone. At least 70% of guests can be expected to participate*.

From B&Bs to Submarines: Chains from Adam's Mark to Wyndham are purchasing. B&Bs, inns, motels, hotels, city parks, state parks, military locations, elegant hotels, resorts, business hotels, condos, apartments and even a submarine company have all purchased. Some hotel companies choose to make the cards mandatory. The linen cards get guests involved in your environmental program, and guests love helping protect the beautiful destinations we all love to visit.

The GREEN CATALOG: Green Hotels Association® researched environmentally-friendly energy and water-saving products, and chose the best of the choices for hotels for our CATALOG OF ENVIRONMENTAL PRODUCTS FOR THE LODGING INDUSTRY. The catalog contains such water-saving devices as a toilet-tank fill diverter, which saves about 3/4 gallon of water per flush, is invisible to the guest, does not affect the flush in any way, and costs little more than $1! Hair and skin care dispensers save money and offer guests shampoo and soap at the push of a button. The guestroom recycler basket is a beautiful, sturdy open-diamond pattern, and is designed for long service.

MEMBERSHIP: We urge all hoteliers interested in our environment to take advantage of GREEN HOTELS ASSOCIATION® MEMBERSHIP immediately. Members receive the very comprehensive 161-page Guidelines and Ideas packed with great ideas, options and techniques revealing how to reduce bills as well as reduce the hotel's impact on your destination. Other benefits include our bi-monthly Greening Newsletter packed with smart, practical ideas, heavy media attention, an Internet listing and public identification as a Green Hotel via pole and front desk flags. Hotels can join for as little as $200 + $1 for each guestroom! The fee includes your logo or photo posted with your web listing. We welcome worldwide membership. For further information contact us TODAY!

PHONE 713/789-8889, FAX 713/789-9786, e-mail: [email protected]

YOU can MAKE A DIFFERENCE!


History and Legends of Hamburgers

Tracing history back thousands of years, we learn that even the ancient Egyptians ate ground meat, and down through the ages we also find that ground meat has been shaped into patties and eaten all over the world under many different name.

1121 – 1209 – Genghis Khan (1162-1227), crowned the “emperor of all emperors,” and his army of fierce Mongol horsemen, known as the “Golden Horde,” conquered two thirds of the then known world. The Mongols were a fast-moving, cavalry-based army that rode small sturdy ponies. They stayed in their saddles for long period of time, sometimes days without ever dismounting. They had little opportunity to stop and build a fire for their meal.

The entire village would follow behind the army on great wheeled carts they called “yurts,” leading huge herds of sheep, goats, oxen, and horses. As the army needed food that could be carried on their mounts and eaten easily with one hand while they rode, ground meat was the perfect choice. They would use scrapings of lamb or mutton which were formed into flat patties. They softened the meat by placing them under the saddles of their horses while riding into battle. When it was time to eat, the meat would be eaten raw, having been tenderized by the saddle and the back of the horse.

1238 – When Genghis Khan’s grandson, Khubilai Khan (1215-1294), invaded Moscow, they naturally brought their unique dietary ground meat with them. The Russians adopted it into their own cuisine with the name “Steak Tartare,” (Tartars being their name for the Mongols). Over many years, Russian chefs adapted and developed this dish and refining it with chopped onions and raw eggs.

15th Century

Beginning in the fifteenth century, minced beef was a valued delicacy throughout Europe. Hashed beef was made into sausage in several different regions of Europe.

1600s – Ships from the German port of Hamburg, Germany began calling on Russian port. During this period the Russian steak tartare was brought back to Germany and called “tartare steak.”

18th and 19th Centuries

Hamburg Steak:

In the late eighteenth century, the largest ports in Europe were in Germany. Sailors who had visited the ports of Hamburg, Germany and New York, brought this food and term “Hamburg Steak” into popular usage. To attract German sailors, eating stands along the New York city harbor offered “steak cooked in the Hamburg style.”

Immigrants to the United States from German-speaking countries brought with them some of their favorite foods. One of them was Hamburg Steak. The Germans simply flavored shredded low-grade beef with regional spices, and both cooked and raw it became a standard meal among the poorer classes. In the seaport town of Hamburg, it acquired the name Hamburg steak. Today, this hamburger patty is no longer called Hamburg Steak in Germany but rather “Frikadelle,” “Frikandelle” or “Bulette,” orginally Italian and French words.

According to Theodora Fitzgibbon in her book The Food of the Western World – An Encyclopedia of food from North American and Europe:

The originated on the German Hamburg-Amerika line boats, which brought emigrants to America in the 1850s. There was at that time a famous Hamburg beef which was salted and sometimes slightly smoked, and therefore ideal for keeping on a long sea voyage. As it was hard, it was minced and sometimes stretched with soaked breadcrumbs and chopped onion. It was popular with the Jewish emigrants, who continued to make Hamburg steaks, as the patties were then called, with fresh meat when they settled in the U.S.

The Origin of Hamburgers and Ketchup, by Prof. Giovanni Ballarini:

The origin of the hamburger is not very clear, but the prevailing version is that at the end of 1800′ s, European emigrants reached America on the ships of the Hamburg Lines and were served meat patties quickly cooked on the grill and placed between two pieces of bread.

Invention of Meat Choppers:

Referring to ground beef as hamburger dates to the invention of the mechanical meat choppers during the 1800s. It was not until the early nineteenth century that wood, tin, and pewter cylinders with wooden plunger pushers became common. Steve Church of Ridgecrest, California uncovered some long forgotten U. S. patents on Meat Cutters:

E. Wade received Patent Number x5348 on January 26, 1829 for what may be the first patented “Meat Cutter.” The patent shows choppers moving up and down onto a rotating block.

G. A. Coffman of Virginia received Patent Number 3935 on February 28, 1845 for an “Improvement in Machines for Cutting Sausage-Meat” using a spiral feeder and rotating knives something like a modern food grinder.

Old Restaurant Menus:

Many historians claim the first printed American menu was in 1826 on New York’s Delmonico’s Restaurant. Ellen Steinberg, Ph.D, of Illinois sent me the following information from the Nutrition Today Magazine, Volume 39, January/February 2004, pp 18-25:

Food in American History, Part 6 – Beef (Part 1): Reconstruction and Growth Into the 20th Century (1865-1910), by Louis E. Grivetti, PhD, Jan L. Corlett, PhD, Bertram M. Gordon, PhD, and Cassius T. Lockett, PhD:

Others have written the first hamburger – specifically hamburger steak – was served in 1834 at Delmonico’s Restaurant, New York City, for $.10. However, this oft-quoted origin is not based on the original Delmonico menu but rather a facsimile, and it can be demonstrated through careful scholarship that the published facsimile could not be correct, because the printer of the purported original menu was not in business in 1834!

According to the Los Angeles, CA Metropolitan New-Enterprise newspaper article, Old Menus Tell the History of Hamburgers in L.A., by Roger M. Grace:

From 1871-1884, “Hamburg Beefsteak” was on the “Breakfast and Supper Menu” of the Clipper Restaurant at 311/313 Pacific Street in San Fernando. It cost 10 cents—the same price as mutton chops, pig’s feet in batter, and stewed veal. It was not, however, on the dinner menu “Pig’s Head” “Calf Tongue” and “Stewed Kidneys” were.

Hamburger Steak, Plain and Hamburger Steak with Onions, was served at the Tyrolean Alps Restaurant at the 1904 St. Louis World’s Fair.

Old Cookbooks:

1758 – By the mid-18th century, German immigrants also begin arriving in England. One recipe, titled “Hamburgh Sausage,” appeared in Hannah Glasse’s 1758 English cookbook called The Art of Cookery Made Plain and Easy. It consisted of chopped beef, suet, and spices. The author recommended that this sausage be served with toasted bread. Hannah Glasse’s cookbook was also very popular in Colonial America, although it was not published in the United States until 1805. This American edition also contained the “Hamburgh Sausage” recipe with slight revisions.

1844 – The original Boston Cooking School Cook Book, by Mrs. D.A. Lincoln (Mary Bailey), 1844 had a recipe for Broiled Meat Cakes and also Hamburgh Steak:

Broiled Meat Cakes – Chop lean, raw beef quite fine. Season with salt, pepper, and a little chopped onion, or onion juice. Make it into small flat cakes, and broil on a well-greased gridiron or on a hot frying pan. Serve very hot with butter or Maitre de’ Hotel sauce.


Hamburgh Steak
– Pound a slice of round steak enough to break the fibre. Fry two or three onions, minced fine, in butter until slightly browned. Spread the onions over the meat, fold the ends of the meat together, and pound again, to keep the onions in the middle. Broil two or three minutes. Spread with butter, salt, and pepper.

1894 – In the 1894 edition of the book The Epicurean: A Complete Treatise of Analytical & Practical Studies, by Charles Ranhofer (1836-1899), chef at the famous Delmonico’s restaurant in New York, there is a listing for Beef Steak Hamburg Style. The dish is also listed in French as Bifteck Hambourgeoise. What made his version unique was that the recipe called for the ground beef to be mixed with kidney and bone marrow:

One pound of tenderloin beef free of sinews and fat chop it up on a chopping block with four ounces of beef kidney suet, free of nerves and skin or else the same quantity of marrow add one ounce of chopped onions fried in butter without attaining color season all with salt, pepper and nutmeg, and divide the preparation into balls, each one weighing four ounces flatten them down, roll them in bread-crumbs and fry them in a sautpan in butter. When of a fine color on both sides, dish them up pouring a good thickened gravy . . . over.”

1906 – Upton Sinclair (1878-1968), American novelist, wrote in his book called The Jungle, which told of the horrors of Chicago meat packing plants. This book caused much distrust in the United States regarding chopped meat. Sinclair was surprised that the public missed the main point of his impressionistic fiction and took it to be an indictment of unhygienic conditions of the meat packing industry. This caused people to not trust chopped meat for several years.

History of American Hamburgers

Only one of the claimants below served their hamburgers on a bun – Oscar Weber Bilby in 1891. The rest served them as sandwiches between two slices of bread.

Most of the following stories on the history of the hamburgers were told after the fact and are based on the recollections of family members. For many people, which story or legend you believe probably depends on where you are from. You be the judge! The claims are as follows:

1885 – Charlie Nagreen of Seymour, Wisconsin – At the age of 15, he sold hamburgers from his ox-drawn food stand at the Outagamie County Fair. He went to the Outagamie County Fair and set up a stand selling meatballs. Business wasn’t good and he quickly realized that it was because meatballs were too difficult to eat while strolling around the fair. In a flash of innovation, he flattened the meatballs, placed them between two slices of bread and called his new creation a hamburger. He was known to many as “Hamburger Charlie.” He returned to sell hamburgers at the fair every year until his death in 1951, and he would entertain people with guitar and mouth organ and his jingle:

Hamburgers, hamburgers, hamburgers hot onions in the middle, pickle on top. Makes your lips go flippity flop.

The town of Seymour, Wisconsin is so certain about this claim that they even have a Hamburger Hall of Fame that they built as a tribute to Charlie Nagreen and the legacy he left behind. The town claims to be “Home of the Hamburger” and holds an annual Burger Festival on the first Saturday of August each year. Events include a ketchup slide, bun toss, and hamburger-eating contest, as well as the “world’s largest hamburger parade.”

On May 9, 2007 , members of the Wisconsin legislature declared Seymour, Wisconsin, as the home of the hamburger:

Whereas, Seymour, Wisconsin, is the right home of the hamburger and,
Whereas, other accounts of the origination of the hamburger trace back only so far as the 1880s, while Seymour’s claim can be traced to 1885 and,
Whereas, Charles Nagreen, also known as Hamburger Charlie, of Seymour, Wisconsin, began calling ground beef patties in a bun “hamburgers” in 1885 and,
Whereas, Hamburger Charlie first sold his world-famous hamburgers at age 15 at the first Seymour Fair in 1885, and later at the Brown and Outagamie county fairs and,
Whereas, Hamburger Charlie employed as many as eight people at his famous hamburger tent, selling 150 pounds of hamburgers on some days and,
Whereas, the hamburger has since become an American classic, enjoyed by families and backyard grills alike now, therefore, be it Resolved by the assembly, the senate concurring, That the members of the Wisconsin legislature declare Seymour, Wisconsin, the Original Home of the Hamburger.

1885 – The family of Frank and Charles Menches from Akron, Ohio, claim the brothers invented the hamburger while traveling in a 100-man traveling concession circuit at events (fairs, race meetings, and farmers’ picnics) in the Midwest in the early 1880s. During a stop at the Erie County Fair in Hamburg, New York, the brothers ran out of pork for their hot sausage patty sandwiches. Because this happened on a particularly hot day, the local butchers stop slaughtering pigs. The butcher suggested that they substitute beef for the pork. The brothers ground up the beef, mixed it with some brown sugar, coffee, and other spices and served it as a sandwich between two pieces of bread . They called this sandwich the “hamburger” after Hamburg, New York where the fair was being held. According to family legend, Frank didn’t really know what to call it, so he looked up and saw the banner for the Hamburg fair and said, “This is the hamburger.” In Frank’s 1951 obituary in The Los Angeles Times, he is acknowledged him as the ”inventor” of the hamburger.

Hamburg held its first Burgerfest in 1985 to mark the 100th anniversary of the birth of the hamburger after organizers discovered a history book detailing the burger’s origins.

In 1991 , Menches and his siblings stumbled across the original recipe among some old papers their great-grandmother left behind. After selling their burgers at county fairs for a few years, the family opened up the Menches Bros. Restaurant in Akron, Ohio. The Menches family is still in the restaurant business and still serving hamburgers in Ohio.

On May 28, 2005 , the town of Akron, Ohio hosted the First Annual National Hamburger Festival to celebrate the 120th Anniversary of the invention of the hamburger. The festival will be dedicated to Frank and Charles Menches. That is how sure the city of Akron is on the Menches’ family claim on the contested contention that two residents invented the hamburger. The Ohio legislature is also considering making hamburgers the state food.

1891 – The family of Oscar Weber Bilby claim the first-known hamburger on a bun was served on Grandpa Oscar’s farm just west of Tulsa, Oklahoma in 1891. The family says that Grandpa Oscar was the first to add the bun, but they concede that hamburger sandwiches made with bread may predate Grandpa Oscar’s famous hamburger.

Michael Wallis, travel writer and reporter for Oklahoma Today magazine, did an extensive search in 1995 for the true origins of the hamburger and determined that Oscar Weber Bilby himself was the creator of the hamburger as we know it. According to Wallis’s 1995 article, Welcome To Hamburger Heaven, in an interview with Harold Bilby:

The story has been passed down through the generations like a family Bible. “Grandpa himself told me that it was in June of 1891 when he took up a chunk of iron and made himself a big ol’ grill,” explains Harold. “Then the next month on the Fourth of July he built a hickory wood fire underneath that grill, and when those coals were glowing hot, he took some ground Angus meat and fired up a big batch of hamburgers. When they were cooked all good and juicy, he put them on my Grandma Fanny’s homemade yeast buns – the best buns in all the world, made from her own secret recipe. He served those burgers on buns to neighbors and friends under a grove of pecan trees . . . They couldn’t get enough, so Grandpa hosted another big feed. He did that every Fourth of July, and sometimes as many as 125 people showed up.”

Simple math supports Harold Bilby’s contention that if his Grandpa served burgers on Grandma Fanny’s buns in 1891, then the Bilbys eclipsed the St. Louis World’s Fair vendors by at least thirteen years. That would make Oklahoma the cradle of the hamburger. “There’s not even the trace of a doubt in my mind,” say Harold. “My grandpa invented the hamburger on a bun right here in what became Oklahoma, and if anybody wants to say different, then let them prove otherwise.”

In 1933 , Oscar and his son, Leo, opened the family’s first hamburger stand in Tulsa, Oklahoma, called Weber’s Superior Root Beer Stand. They still use the same grill used in 1891, with one minor variation, the wood stove has been converted to natural gas. In a letter to me, Linda Stradley, dated July 31, 2004, Rick Bilby states the following:

My great-grandfather, Oscar Weber Bilby invented the hamburger on July 4, 1891. He served ground beef patties that were seared to perfection on a open flame from a hand-made grill. My great-grandmother Fanny made her own home-made yeast hamburger buns to put around the ground beef patties. They served this new sandwich along with their tasty home-made rood beer which was also carbonated with yeast. People would come for all over the county on July 4th each year to consume and enjoy these treats. To this day we still cook our hamburger on grandpa’s grill, which is now fired by natural gas.

On April 13, 1995 , Governor Frank Keating of Oklahoma proclaimed that the real birthplace of the hamburger on the bun, was created and consumed in Tulsa in 1891. The State of Oklahoma Proclamation states:

Whereas, scurrilous rumors have credited Athens, Texas, as the birthplace of the hamburger, claiming for that region south of the Red River commonly known as Baja Oklahoma a fame and renown which are hardly its due and
Whereas, the Legislature of Baja Oklahoma has gone so far as to declare April 3, 1995, to be Athens Day at the State Capitol, largely on the strength of this bogus claim, and
Whereas, while the residents, the scenery, the hospitality and the food found in Athens are no doubt superior to those in virtually any other locale, they must be recognized. In the words of Mark Twain, as “the lightning bug is to the lightning” when compared with the Great City of Tulsa in the Great State of Oklahoma and
Whereas, although someone in Athens, in the 1860’s, may have place cooked ground beef between two slices of bread, this minor accomplishment can in no way be regarded comes on a bun accompanied by such delight as pickles, onions, lettuce, tomato, cheese and, in some cases, special sauce and
Whereas, the first true hamburger on a bun, as meticulous research shows, was created and consumed in Tulsa in 1891 and was only copied for resale at the St. Louis World’s Fair a full 13 years after that momentous and history-making occasion:
Now Therefore, I, Frank Keating, Governor of the State of Oklahoma, do hereby proclaim April 12, 1995, as THE REAL BIRTHPLACE OF THE HAMBURGER IN TULSA DAY.

1900Louis Lassen of New Haven, Connecticut is also recorded as serving the first “burger” at his New Haven luncheonette called Louis’ Lunch Wagon. Louis ran a small lunch wagon selling steak sandwiches to local factory workers. A frugal business man, he did not like to waste the excess beef from his daily lunch rush. It is said that he ground up some scraps of beef and served it as a sandwich, the sandwich was sold between pieces of toasted bread , to a customer who was in a hurry and wanted to eat on the run.

Kenneth Lassen, Louis’ grandson, was quoted in the September 25, 1991 Athens Daily Review as saying

“We have signed, dated and notarized affidavits saying we served the first hamburger sandwiches in 1900. Other people may have been serving the steak but there’s a big difference between a hamburger steak and a hamburger sandwich.”

In the mid-1960s , the New Haven Preservation Trust placed a plaque on the building where Louis’ Lunch is located proclaiming Louis’ Lunch to be the first place the hamburger was sold.

Louis’ Lunch is still selling their hamburgers from a small brick building in New Haven. The sandwich is grilled vertically in antique gas grills and served between pieces of toast rather than a bun, and refuse to provide mustard or ketchup.

Library of Congress named Louis’ Lunch a “Connecticut Legacy.” The following is taken from the Congressional Record, 27 July 2000, page E1377:

Honoring Louis’ Lunch on Its 105th Anniversary – Representative Rosa L. DeLauro:
. . . it is with great pleasure that I rise today to celebrate the 105th anniversary of a true New Haven landmark: Louis’ Lunch. Recently the Lassen family celebrated this landmark as well as the 100th anniversary of their claim to fame — the invention and commercial serving of one of America’s favorites, the hamburger . . . The Lassens and the community of New Haven shared unparalleled excitement when the Library of Congress named Louis’ Lunch a “Connecticut Legacy” — nothing could be more true.

1901 or 1902 – Bert W. Gary of Clarinda, Iowa, in an article by Paige Carlin for the Omaha World Herald newspaper, takes no credit for having invented it, but he stakes uncompromising claim to being the “daddy” of the hamburger industry. He served his hamburger on a bun :

The hamburger business all started about 1901 or 1902 (The Grays aren’t sure which) when Mr. Gray operated a little cafe on the east side of Clarinda’s Courthouse Square.

Mr. Gray recalled: “There was an old German here named Ail Wall (or Wahl, maybe) and he ran a butcher shop. One day he was stuffing bologna with a little hand machine, and he said to me: ‘Bert, why wouldn’t ground meat make a good sandwich?'”

“I said I’d try it, so I took this ground beef and mixed it with an egg batter and fried it. I couldn’t bet anybody to eat it. I quit the egg batter and just took the meat with a little flour to hold it together. The new technique paid off.”

“He almost ran the other cafes out of the sandwich business,” Mrs. Gray put in. “He could make hamburgers so nice and soft and juicy – better than I ever could,” she added.

“This old German, Wall, came over here from Hamburg, and that’s what he said to call it,” Mr. Gray explained. “I sold them for a nickel apiece in those days. That was when the meat was 10 or 12 cents a pound,” he added. “I bought $5 or $6 worth of meat at a time and I got three or four dozen pans of buns from the bakery a day.”

One time the Grays heard a conflicting claim by a man (somewhere in the northern part of the state) that he was the hamburger’s inventor. “I didn’t pay any attention to him,” Mr. Gray snorted. “I’ve got plenty of proof mine was the first,” he said.

1904 World’s Fair – Louisiana Purchase Exhibition

1904 – The hamburger gets its first widespread attention at the 1904 World’s Fair in St. Louis, Missouri, also known as the Louisiana Purchase Exhibition, where it created a sensation. A reporter for the New York Tribune wrote from the 1904 St. Louis World’s Fair of a new sandwich called a hamburger, “the innovation of a food vendor on the pike.” By “Pike” he meant the World’s Fair midway.

Most Texans believe the vendor in question was Fletch Davis (1864-1941), also known as “old Dave” who owned a lunch counter in Athens, Texas. Supposedly Fletch Davis, at his Athens lunch counter, took some raw hamburger steak and placed it on his flat grill and fried it until it was a crisp brown on both sides. Then he placed the browned patty of meat between two thick slices of homemade toast and added a thick slice of raw onion to the top. He offered it as a special to his patrons to see if they would like it.

According to some historians, he opened up a concession stand and began selling the ground beef patty sandwich at the amusement area, known as The Pike (there is no evidence for that claim, however). According to the book Beyond The Ice Cream Cone – The Whole Scoop on Food at the 1904 World’s Fair by Pamela J. Vaccaro:

There is no Fletcher Davis on the official concessionaire’s list or on the final financial balance sheet of the LPE Co., and the company certainly would not have let anyone exert any kind of “squatter’s rights.”

According to an article written by John E. Harmon called The Better Burger Battle:

In 1904 Davis and his wife went to the St. Louis World’s Fair either on his own or the townspeople took up a collection to send him (there is no evidence for that claim, however). Whoever paid for the trip, he was there since a reporter for the New York Tribune wrote from the fair of a new sandwich called a hamburger, “the innovation of a food vendor on the pike.” The reporter did not name the vendor but Athens resident Clint Murchison said that his grandfather had strong memories of the sandwich in the 1880s but remembered the innovator only as “Old Dave.” Murchison also had a large photograph of the midway at the 1904 fair with “Old Dave’s Hamburger Stand” marked apparently by his grandfather. When Davis returned from the fair there were already several cafes in Athens serving the sandwich and he went back to firing pots in the Miller pottery works. Tolbert’s investigation proved that “Old Dave” was Fletcher Davis from Athens (Tolbert 1983).

In 1983 , Frank X. Tolbert, former newspaper columnist of the Dallas Morning News, wrote the following in his book Tolbert’s Texas, The Henderson County Hamburger:

“It took me years of sweatneck research before I finally determined, at least in mine and in some other Texas historian’s estimation, that Fletcher Davis (1864-1941), also known as “Old Dave” of Athens, in Henderson County, Texas, invented the hamburger sandwich.”

In 1984 , a plaque was placed on the Ginger Murchison Building, approximately on Fletch Davis’ cafe site.

In 2006 , a bill was introduced into the Texas Legislature, H.C.R. No. 15 – CONCURRENT RESOLUTION, to make Athens, Texas “Original Home of the Hamburger.” This bill is based on the research of Frank X. Tolbert into Fletcher Davis only.

1916 – Walter Anderson from Wichita, Kansas, a fry cook, developed buns to accommodate the hamburger patties. The dough he selected was heavier than ordinary bread dough, and he formed it into small, square shapes that were just big enough for one of his hamburgers. He quit his job as a cook and used his life savings to purchase an old trolley car and developed it into a diner featuring his hamburgers. In 1921, Anderson co-founded the White Castle Hamburger with Edgar Waldo “Billy” Ingram, an insurance executive, in Wichita, Kansas. It is the oldest hamburger chain. They serve steam-fried hamburgers, 18 per pound of fresh ground beef, cooked on a bed of chopped onions, for a nickel.

1931 – Popeye the sailor man, a cartoon figures in the comic strip created by American cartoonist Elzie Crisler Segar (1894-1938) in 1929, and syndicated by the Hearst newspaper’s King Features syndicate featured the character J. Wellington Wimpy, known as Wimpy. Wimpy joined the Popeye comic strip in 1931, and he played a significant role in popularizing the hamburger in the United States. Wimpy is probably best know for his consumption of hamburgers. Wimpy loves to eat hamburgers, but is usually too cheap to pay for them. A recurring joke is Wimpy’s attempts to con other members of the diner into buying him burgers. Wimpy often tries to outwit fellow patrons with his convoluted logic. His famous line is “I’d gladly pay you Tuesday for a hamburger today.”

The popularity the character Wimpy spawned a successful chain of hamburger restaurants called Wimpy’s, that flourished for over a decade. This burger went for the upscale market at 10 cents a burger. In keeping with the founder’s wishes, all 1,500 restaurants were closed down when he died in 1978.

1941 – A California Supreme Court decision, that arose from a sales tax dispute where the plaintiff wanted a refund of taxes paid, under protest, on sales made during the 1937-39 World’s Fair on San Francisco’s Treasure Island. Operating food booths, it “sold only frankfurter (commonly referred to as ‘hot dog’) and hamburger sandwiches, together with coffee, milk, ale and beer, ”the per curiam decision said. The issue was whether these sandwiches constituted a “meal,” rendering them exempt from the sales tax. Resolving the issue against the concessionaire, the high court said:

A ‘hot dog’ or hamburger sandwich is the type of food frequently offered for sale to and desired by persons who wish to eat something while walking about. It is not the type of food generally ordered by a person who patronizes a hotel, restaurant or other public eating establishment with the intention of securing a ‘meal’. It may not be said that one has ‘served’ a meal who merely prepares a sandwich for consumption, wraps it in a paper napkin and hands it to a purchaser without offering any facilities for its consumption on the premises, and with the intention that it be consumed elsewhere.

Cheeseburger

There is also a dispute between Denver, Colorado, Louisville, Kentucky, and Pasadena, California on who and where the cheeseburger was invented.

1920s – Pasadena, California:

According to the 1995 book called Welcome To Hamburger Heaven by Jeffrey Tennyson:

Tennyson said he interviewed former restaurant employees who confirmed that the Rite Spot is where the cheeseburger debuted — although it was called the cheese hamburger.

From the article, Who Invented Hamburger Sandwich? And What About the Cheeseburger? By Roger M. Grace, Metropolitan News-Enterprise, Thursday, January 8, 2004:

Lionel C. Sternberger is believed to have invented the “cheese hamburger” in the 1920s in the Northeast portion of Los Angeles County. Tales differ, however, as to precisely when this occurred, and where. Some peg the date as 1924, others as 1926. The site is usually said to be Pasadena, though that has been called into question.

Steve Harvey, in his column in the L.A. Times, wrote on March 27, 1991: “American Heritage magazine points out that a local restaurateur was identified as the inventor of the cheeseburger at his death in 1964. Cooking at his father’s short-order joint in Pasadena in the early 1920s, the lad experimentally tossed a slice (variety unknown) on a hamburger ‘and lo! the cheeseburger sizzled to life.’

1934 – Louisville, Kentucky:

According to Robin Garr’s Louisville Restaurant Reviews:

Charles Kaelin and his wife opened the restaurant in 1934, the menu claims, dubbing the old brick building at the corner of Newburg and Speed “The birthplace of the cheeseburger.” The standard hamburger had already become “an established staple of the diet” by then. But Kaelin was an inveterate experimenter, always looking for new food ideas. “One day in the kitchen … it occurred to him that if he put a slice of cheese on top of the hamburger patty just before it was done, the cheese would melt down into the patty and add a new tang to the hamburger. It was an instant success – it’s popularity spread nationwide until just about everyone the world over enjoys the cheeseburger. .

The Humpty Dumpty Barrel Drive-In, in Denver, also gone from the scene, trumps that with evidence that it sought to trademark the name “cheeseburger” in Colorado in March 1935. But Kaelin’s claim beats Humpty Dumpty by a year, substantiated by a 1934 menu that reads, “Try Kaelin’s Cheese, burgers … 15 cents … You’ll like ’em.”

Today, a plaque (probably placed there by the owners) on the wall of the Kaelin Restaurant proudly state that Carl Kaelin invented the cheeseburger.

1935 – Denver, Colorado:

The cheeseburger trademark was supposedly registered by Louis Ballast on March 5, 1935 of the Humpty Dumpty Barrel Drive-In in Denver, Colorado. Ballast claimed to have come up with the idea while testing hamburger toppings. Although Louis registered the name, he never made any claims, and the restaurant is now a thing of the past. Some historians dispute that he actually was issued a trademark.


For the First Time, DoubleTree by Hilton Reveals Official Chocolate Chip Cookie Recipe so Bakers Can Create the Warm, Welcoming Treat at Home

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Photo Gallery For the First Time, DoubleTree by Hilton Reveals Official Chocolate Chip Cookie Recipe so Bakers Can Create the Warm, Welcoming Treat at Home (Gallery)

Download DoubleTree Signature Cookie Recipe

DoubleTree Signature Cookie Recipe (Metric)

MCLEAN, Va. - For the first time ever, DoubleTree by Hilton is sharing the official bake-at-home recipe for the brand&rsquos beloved and delicious chocolate chip cookie, so at-home bakers can create the warm and comforting treat in their own kitchens.

The warm chocolate chip cookie welcome is synonymous with DoubleTree hotels worldwide, and travelers look forward to receiving one, fresh from the oven, upon their arrival.

DoubleTree cookies have a passionate fan following and a long history. More than 30 million are consumed every year, and the DoubleTree chocolate chip cookie even became the first food to be baked in orbit during experiments aboard the International Space Station.

Copycat recipes have been shared online for years, but only now has Hilton released the official version to create at home.

&ldquoWe know this is an anxious time for everyone,&rdquo said Shawn McAteer, senior vice president and global head, DoubleTree by Hilton. &ldquoA warm chocolate chip cookie can&rsquot solve everything, but it can bring a moment of comfort and happiness.

&ldquoWe hope families enjoy the fun of baking together during their time at home, and we look forward to welcoming all our guests with a warm DoubleTree cookie when travel resumes.&rdquo

Click here for the recipe in metric units.

DoubleTree Signature Cookie Recipe

½ pound butter, softened (2 sticks)

¾ cup + 1 tablespoon granulated sugar

¾ cup packed light brown sugar

1 ¼ teaspoons vanilla extract

¼ teaspoon freshly squeezed lemon juice

2 2/3 cups Nestle Tollhouse semi-sweet chocolate chips

1 3/4 cups chopped walnuts

Cream butter, sugar and brown sugar in the bowl of a stand mixer on medium speed for about 2 minutes.

Add eggs, vanilla and lemon juice, blending with mixer on low speed for 30 seconds, then medium speed for about 2 minutes, or until light and fluffy, scraping down bowl.

With mixer on low speed, add flour, oats, baking soda, salt and cinnamon, blending for about 45 seconds. Don&rsquot overmix.

Remove bowl from mixer and stir in chocolate chips and walnuts.

Portion dough with a scoop (about 3 tablespoons) onto a baking sheet lined with parchment paper about 2 inches apart.

Preheat oven to 300°F. Bake for 20 to 23 minutes, or until edges are golden brown and center is still soft.

Remove from oven and cool on baking sheet for about 1 hour.

Cook&rsquos note: You can freeze the unbaked cookies, and there&rsquos no need to thaw. Preheat oven to 300°F and place frozen cookies on parchment paper-lined baking sheet about 2 inches apart. Bake until edges are golden brown and center is still soft.

WATCH: The Official Recipe of the Signature DoubleTree Chocolate Chip Cookie

About DoubleTree by Hilton

DoubleTree by Hilton is a fast-growing, global portfolio of more than 590 upscale hotels with more than 136,000 rooms across 48 countries. For more than 50 years, DoubleTree by Hilton has continued to be a symbol of comfort for business and leisure travelers around the world, from welcoming guests with its signature warm DoubleTree chocolate chip cookie, to serving the local community. DoubleTree by Hilton offers contemporary accommodations and amenities, including unique food and beverage experiences, state-of-the-art fitness offerings and meetings and events spaces. Hilton Honors members who book directly through preferred Hilton channels have access to instant benefits. To make reservations, travelers may visit doubletree.com. Connect with DoubleTree by Hilton on Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram. Learn about the latest brand news at newsroom.hilton.com/doubletree.

About Hilton

Hilton (NYSE: HLT) is a leading global hospitality company with a portfolio of 18 world-class brands comprising more than 6,100 properties with more than 971,000 rooms, in 119 countries and territories. Dedicated to fulfilling its mission to be the world’s most hospitable company, Hilton welcomed more than 3 billion guests in its 100-year history, earned a top spot on the 2019 World’s Best Workplaces list, and was named the 2019 Global Industry Leader on the Dow Jones Sustainability Indices. Through the award-winning guest loyalty program Hilton Honors, more than 103 million members who book directly with Hilton can earn Points for hotel stays and experiences money can’t buy, plus enjoy instant benefits, including digital check-in with room selection, Digital Key, and Connected Room. Visit newsroom.hilton.com for more information, and connect with Hilton on Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, Instagram and YouTube.

Contact

Kristen Wells
Director Global Brand Communications +1 703 883 5826


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